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Higher High Density Lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) to Total HDL Cholesterol Ratio Is Associated with a Lower Risk for Incident Hypertension

  • Hwang, You-Cheol (Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine) ;
  • Fujimoto, Wilfred Y. (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine) ;
  • Kahn, Steven E. (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine) ;
  • Leonetti, Donna L. (Department of Anthropology, University of Washington) ;
  • Boyko, Edward J. (Seattle Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System)
  • Received : 2018.03.28
  • Accepted : 2018.07.17
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

Background: Recent studies have suggested that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We aimed to determine the association between different HDL cholesterol subclasses and risk of future hypertension. Methods: A total of 270 Japanese Americans (130 men, 140 women) without hypertension between the ages of 34 to 75 years were enrolled. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and average blood pressure was calculated. Incident hypertension was determined 5 to 6 and 10 to 11 years after enrollment. HDL2, HDL3, and total HDL cholesterol were measured at baseline. Results: During 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of hypertension was 28.1% (76/270). In univariate analysis, age, diabetes, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin resistance index, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and visceral adipose tissue were significant predictors for incident hypertension. Among the HDL cholesterol subclass, HDL2 cholesterol was inversely associated with hypertension incidence, but both total and HDL3 cholesterol were not. In addition, HDL2/HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with future hypertension risk. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 2.31; P=0.001), systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.56; P<0.001), and HDL2/HDL cholesterol (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98; P=0.035), were associated with future development of hypertension. Conclusion: A higher proportion of HDL2 cholesterol among total HDL cholesterol predicted a lower risk for incident hypertension. However, concentrations of total HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol were not independent predictors of incident hypertension.

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