The water-energy-food resources and environment: Evidence from selected SAARC countries

  • Mansoor, Abdul (Department of Economics, University of Wah) ;
  • Sultana, Baserat (Department of Economics, University of Wah) ;
  • Shafique, Saima (Department of Economics, National University of Modern Languages) ;
  • Zaman, Khalid (Department of Economics, University of Wah)
  • Received : 2018.11.06
  • Accepted : 2019.01.23
  • Published : 2019.03.25


The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between water resources, energy demand, food production, and environmental pollutants in selected SAARC nations, namely, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, during the period of 1990-2016. The results show that water, energy, and food (WEF) resources substantially affected air quality in the form of high mass carbon emissions, fossil fuel energy demand, methane discharges, nitrous oxide emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions in these countries. Food production and food deficit largely increase $CO_2$ emissions due to unsustainable production and malnutrition, while land use under cereal production increases $CH_4$ and $N_2O$ emissions. Electricity production escalates $CO_2$ emissions and fossil emissions across countries. The results support the carbon EKC hypothesis, while monotonic increasing function exists in case of fossil fuel energy. The study emphasizes the need to ensure environmental sustainability agenda by adopting cleaner production technologies in WEF resources.


$CO_2$ emission;energy and environment;energy efficiency;energy management;Sustainability and life cycle assessments


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