DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Temperature and microbial changes of corn silage during aerobic exposure

  • Lee, Seong Shin (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture & Life Sciences), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Hyuk Jun (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture & Life Sciences), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Paradhipta, Dimas Hand Vidya (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture & Life Sciences), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Joo, Young Ho (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture & Life Sciences), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Sang Bum (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Dong Hyeon (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Sam Churl (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture & Life Sciences), Gyeongsang National University)
  • 투고 : 2018.07.27
  • 심사 : 2018.11.05
  • 발행 : 2019.07.01

초록

Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the temperature and microbial changes of corn silages during aerobic exposure. Methods: Kwangpyeongok (KW) and Pioneer 1543 (PI) corn hybrids were harvested at 29.7% of dry matter and chopped to 3 to 5 cm lengths. Homo (Lactobacillus plantarum; LP) or hetero (Lactobacillus buchneri; LB) fermentative inoculants at $1.2{\times}10^5$ colony forming unit/g of fresh forage was applied to the chopped corn forage which was then ensiled in quadruplicate with a $2{\times}2$ (hybrid${\times}$inoculant) treatment arrangement for 100 days. After the silo was opened, silage was sub-sampled for analysis of chemical compositions, in vitro digestibility, and fermentation indices. The fresh silage was continued to determine aerobic exposure qualities by recorded temperature and microbial changes. Results: The KW silages had higher (p<0.01) in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber than those of PI silages. Silages applied with LB had higher (p<0.001) acetate concentration, but lower (p<0.01) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than those of LP silages. The interaction effect among hybrid and inoculant was detected in acetate production (p = 0.008), aerobic stability (p = 0.006), and lactic acid bacteria count (p = 0.048). The yeast was lower (p = 0.018) in LB silages than that in LP silages. During the aerobic exposure, PI silages showed higher (p<0.05) temperature and mold than KW silages, while LP silages had higher (p<0.05) lactic acid bacteria and yeast than LB silages. Conclusion: The results indicated that the changes of silage temperature during aerobic exposure seems mainly affected by mold growth, while applied LB only enhanced aerobic stability of PI silages.

키워드

Aerobic Stability;Corn Silage;Fermentation Indices;Inoculant;Silage Temperature

과제정보

연구 과제번호 : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development

연구 과제 주관 기관 : Rural Development Administration

참고문헌

  1. Allen MS, Coors JG, Roth GW. Corn silage. In: Buxton DR, Muck RE, Harrison JH, editors. Silage science and technology. Madison, WI, USA: American Society of Agronomy; 2003. p. 547-608.
  2. Garon D, Richard E, Sage L, et al. Mycoflora and multimycotoxin detection in corn silage: experimental study. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:3479-84. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060179i
  3. Richard E, Heutte N, Sage L, et al. Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in mature corn silage. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:2420-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.018
  4. Wilkinson JM, Davies DR. The aerobic stability of silage: key findings and recent developments. Grass Forage Sci 2013;68:1-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00891.x
  5. Pahlow G, Muck RE, Driehuis F, Oude Elferink SJWH, Spoelstra SF. Microbiology of ensiling. In: Buxton DR, Muck RE, Harrison JH, editors. Silage science and technology. Madison, WI, USA: American Society of Agronomy; 2003. p. 31-93.
  6. McDonald P, Henderson AR, Heron SJE. The biochemistry of silage, 2nd ed. Bucks, UK: Chalcombe Publ; 1991.
  7. Arriola KG, Kim SC, Adesogan AT. Effect of applying inoculants with heterolactic or homolactic and heterolactic bacteria on the fermentation and quality of corn silage. J Dairy Sci 2011;94:1511-6. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3807
  8. Ashbell G, Weinberg ZG, Azrieli A, Hen Y, Horev B. A simple system to study the aerobic deterioration of silages. Can Agric Eng 1991;33:391-3.
  9. Moon HG, Son BY, Cha SW, et al. A new single cross maize hybrid for silage "Kwangpyeongok". Korean J Breed Sci 2001;33:350-1.
  10. Buriro M, Bhutto TA, Gandahi AW, Kumbhar IA, Shar MU. Effect of sowing dates on growth, yield, and grain quality of hybrid maize. J Basic Appl Sci 2015;11:553-8. https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5129.2015.11.73
  11. Andrae JG, Hunt CW, Pritchard GT, et al. Effect of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of corn silage on intake and digestibility by beef cattle. J Anim Sci 2001;79:2268-75. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7992268x
  12. Johnson LM, Harrison JH, Davidson D, et al. Corn silage management II: Effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on digestion and energy content. J Dairy Sci 2002;85:2913-27. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74379-8
  13. Kang TW, Adesogan AT, Kim SC, Lee SS. Effects of an esterase-producing inoculant on fermentation, aerobic stability, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of corn silage. J Dairy Sci 2009;92:732-8. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0780
  14. Cai Y, Benno Y, Ogawa M, Kumai S. Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria isolated from forage crops on fermentation characteristics and aerobic deterioration of silage. J Dairy Sci 1999;82:520-6. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75263-X
  15. Ranjit NK, Kung L Jr. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, or a chemical preservative on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. J Dairy Sci 2000;83:526-35. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74912-5
  16. Filya I, Sucu E. The effect of bacterial inoculants and a chemical preservative on the fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-crop cereal silages. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2007;20:378-84. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.378
  17. Johnson LM, Harrison JH, Davidson D, Mahanna WC, Shinners K. Corn silage management: effects of hybrid, maturity, inoculation, and mechanical processing on fermentation characteristics. J Dairy Sci 2003;86:287-308. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73607-8
  18. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA: AOAC International; 1995.
  19. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  20. Tilley JMA, Terry RA. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J Br Grassl Soc 1963;18:104-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.x
  21. Chaney AL, Marbach EP. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin Chem 1962;8:130-2.
  22. Muck RE, Dickerson JT. Storage temperature effects on proteolysis in alfalfa silage. Trans ASASE 1988;31:1005-9. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.30813
  23. SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STAT user's guide: Version 9. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.; 2002.
  24. Son BY, Kim JT, Song SY, et al. Comparison of yield and forage quality of silage corns at different planting dates. J Kor Grassl Forage Sci 2009;29:179-86. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2009.29.3.179
  25. Lee SM. Effects of ridging times on agronomic characteristics, yield and feed value of corn hybrid for silage in paddy field cultivation. J Kor Grassl Forage Sci 2012;32:265-74. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.3.265
  26. Driehuis F, Oude Elferink SJWH, Van Wikselaar PG. Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of grass silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri, with or without homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Grass Forage Sci 2001;56:330-43. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.2001.00282.x
  27. Kim DH, Amanullah SM, Lee HY, et al. Effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculation on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silage. Anim Sci J 2018;89:140-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12923
  28. Dado RG, Allen MS. Intake limitations, feeding behavior, and rumen function of cows challenged with rumen fill from dietary fiber or inert bulk. J Dairy Sci 1995;78:118-33. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76622-X
  29. Danner H, Holzer M, Mayrhuber E, Braun R. Acetic acid increases stability of silage under aerobic conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003;69:562-7. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.1.562-567.2003
  30. Condon S. Responses of lactic acid bacteria to oxygen. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1987;46:269-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1987.tb02465.x