Inhibitory effects of dietary antioxidants on the formation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled pork

  • Wongmaneepratip, Wanwisa (Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University) ;
  • Jom, Kriskamol Na (Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University) ;
  • Vangnai, Kanithaporn (Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University)
  • Received : 2018.10.25
  • Accepted : 2019.01.08
  • Published : 2019.08.01


Objective: The inhibitory effects of dietary antioxidants, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and quercetin, in marinade were investigated on the formation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA priority 16 PAHs) in grilled pork. Methods: The formation of PAHs in grilled sirloin pork with different marinades after charcoal-grilling for 2 min/side were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Compared with the control marinade treatment (without antioxidant), the addition of DADS (500 mg/kg meat sample) in marinade significantly decreased benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (100%) and heavy PAHs (84%) in charcoal-grilled pork, while the addition of quercetin at the same concentration could reduce 23% and 55% of BaP and heavy PAHs, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that the addition of DADS in the marinade could be important in decreasing the levels of PAHs in grilled meat.


Supported by : Kasetsart University


  1. Plaza-Bolanos P, Frenich AG, Vidal JLM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food and beverages. Analytical methods and trends. J Chromatogr A 2010;1217:6303-26.
  2. Teixeira VH, Casal S, Oliveira MBPP. PAHs content in sunflower, soybean and virgin olive oils: evaluation in commercial samples and during refining process. Food Chem 2007;104:106-12.
  3. Wenzl T, Simon R, Anklam E, Kleiner J. Analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and the environment needed for new food legislation in the European Union. TrAC Trends Analyt Chem 2006;25:716-25.
  4. Sen S, Field JM. Genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites. Adv Mol Toxicol 2013;7:83-127.
  5. IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer [Internet]. Volume 92 some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures. 2011 [cited 2017 Jun 13]. Available from:
  6. EFSA, European Food Safety Authority. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food - scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain. EFSA J 2008;724:1-114.
  7. EC, European Commission [Internet]. Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011 of 19 August 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuffs. 2011 [cited 2017 Apr 13]. Available from:
  8. Bojes HK, Pope PG. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2007;47:288-95.
  9. Wongmaneepratip W, Vangnai K. Effects of oil types and pH on carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled chicken. Food Control 2017;79:119-25.
  10. Min S, Patra JM, Shin H. Factors influencing inhibition of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in heated meat model system. Food Chem 2018;239:993-1000.
  11. Viegas O, Yebra-Pimentel I, Martinez-Carballo E, et al. Effect of beer marinades on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled pork. J Agric Food Chem 2014;62:2638-43.
  12. Garcia-Lomillo J, Viegas O, Gonzalez-SanJose ML, et al. Influence of red wine pomace seasoning and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on carcinogens formation in barbecued beef patties. Meat Sci 2017;125:10-5.
  13. Farhadian A, Jinap S, Abas F, IslamSakar Z. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat. Food Control 2010;21:606-10.
  14. Purcaro G, Moret S, Conte LS. Overview on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: occurrence, legislation and innovative determination in foods. Talanta 2013;105:292-305.
  15. Yusop SM, O'Sullivan MG, Kerry JF, et al. Effect of marinating time and low pH on marinade performance and sensory acceptability of poultry meat. Meat Sci 2010;85:657-63.
  16. Gibis M. Effect of oil marinades with garlic, onion, and lemon juice on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef patties. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:10240-7.
  17. Farhadian A, Jinap S, Faridah A, et al. Effects of marinating on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and fluoranthene) in grilled beef meat. Food Control 2012;28:420-5.
  18. Chung LY. The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide. J Med Food 2006;9:205-13.
  19. Shun-Jen T, Jenq SN, Lee H. Naturally occurring diallyl disulfide inhibits the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in boiled pork juice. Mutagenesis 1996;11:235-40.
  20. Wang W, Sun C, Mao L, et al. The biological activities, chemical stability, metabolism and delivery systems of quercetin: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 2016;56:21-38.
  21. Chung SY, Yettella RR, Kim JS, et al. Effects of grilling and roasting on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in beef and pork. Food Chem 2011;129:1420-6.
  22. AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists [Internet]. Peer verified methods program, manual on policies and procedures. 1993 [cited 2017 Mar 20]. Available from:;jsessionid=C3D82F9AE00CA520AF2E3F46E67E8D6E?doi=
  23. Amorati R, Pedull GF. Do garlic-derived allyl sulfides scavenge peroxyl radicals? Org Biomol Chem 2008;6:1103-7.
  24. Maldonado PD, Alvarez-Idaboy JR, Aguilar-Gonzalez A, et al. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine. J Phys Chem B 2011;115:13408-17.
  25. Yi L, Su Q. Molecular mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects of diallyl disulfide. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;57:362-70.
  26. Mamatha T, Kazmi S. An updated review on multipotential medicinal applications. J Pharm Sci Res 2017;9:1874-81.