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Detrimental effects of lipopolysaccharides on maturation of bovine oocytes

  • Zhao, Shanjiang ;
  • Pang, Yunwei ;
  • Zhao, Xueming ;
  • Du, Weihua ;
  • Hao, Haisheng ;
  • Zhu, Huabin
  • Received : 2018.07.20
  • Accepted : 2018.10.16
  • Published : 2019.08.01

Abstract

Objective: Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to be associated with uterine impairment, embryonic resorption, ovarian dysfunction, and follicle retardation. Here, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of LPS on the maturation ability and parthenogenetic developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Methods: First, we developed an in vitro model to study the response of bovine cumulusoocyte complexes (COCs) to LPS stress. After incubating germinal vesicle COCs in $10{\mu}g/mL$ of LPS, we analyzed the following three aspects: the expression levels of the LPS receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in COCs, activities of intracellular signaling protein p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$); and the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, and IL-6. Furthermore, we determined the effects of LPS on the maturation ability and parthenogenetic developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Results: The results revealed that LPS treatment significantly elevated TLR4 mRNA and protein expression levels in COCs. Exposure of COCs to LPS also resulted in a marked increase in activity of the intracellular signaling protein p-p38 MAPK and NF-${\kappa}B$. Furthermore, oocytes cultured in maturation medium containing LPS had significantly higher concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-$1{\beta}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IL-6. LPS exposure significantly decreased the first polar body extrusion rate. The cytoplasmic maturation, characterized by polar body extrusion and distribution of peripheral cortical granules, was significantly impaired in LPS-treated oocytes. Moreover, LPS exposure significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and the relative mRNA abundance of the antioxidants thioredoxin (Trx), Trx2, and peroxiredoxin 1 in oocytes. Moreover, the early apoptotic rate and the release of cytochrome C were significantly increased in response to LPS. The cleavage, morula, and blastocyst formation rates were significantly lower in parthenogenetically activated oocytes exposed to LPS, while the incidence of apoptotic nuclei in blastocysts was significantly increased. Conclusion: Together, these results provide an underlying mechanism by which LPS impairs maturation potential in bovine oocytes.

Keywords

Cattle;Lipopolysaccharide;Oocyte;Oxidative Stress;Apoptosis

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : China Agriculture Research System, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation