DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Multi-material core as self-centering mechanism for buildings incorporating BRBs

  • Hoveidae, Nader (Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University)
  • Received : 2018.02.20
  • Accepted : 2019.04.01
  • Published : 2019.05.25

Abstract

Conventional buckling restrained braces used in concentrically braced frames are expected to yield in both tension and compression without major degradation of capacity under severe seismic ground motions. One of the weakness points of a standard buckling restrained braced frame is the low post-yield stiffness and thus large residual deformation under moderate to severe ground motions. This phenomenon can be attributed to low post-yield stiffness of core member in a BRB. This paper introduces a multi-core buckling restrained brace. The multi-core term arises from the use of more than one core component with different steel materials, including high-performance steel (HPS-70W) and stainless steel (304L) with high strain hardening properties. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were conducted on variety of diagonally braced frames with different heights, in order to compare the seismic performance of regular and multi-core buckling restrained braced frames. The results exhibited that the proposed multi-core buckling restrained braces reduce inter-story and especially residual drift demands in BRBFs. In addition, the results of seismic fragility analysis designated that the probability of exceedance of residual drifts in multi-core buckling restrained braced frames is significantly lower in comparison to standard BRBFs.

References

  1. Pampanin, S., Christopoulos, C. and Priestley, M. (2003), "Performance- based seismic response of frame structures including residual deformations, Part II: Multi-degree of freedom systems", J. Earthq. Eng., 7, 119-147.
  2. Pandikkadavath, M. and Sahoo, D. (2016), "Analytical investigation on cyclic response of buckling-restrained braces with short yielding core segments", Int. J. Steel. Struct., 16, 1273-1285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13296-016-0083-y. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13296-016-0083-y
  3. Pettinga, D., Christopoulos, C., Pampanin, S. and Priestley, N. (2007), "Effectiveness of simple approaches in mitigating residual deformations in buildings", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 36, 1763-1783. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.717. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.717
  4. Qiang, X. (2005), "State of the art of buckling-restrained braces in Asia", J. Constr. Steel Res., 61, 727-748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2004.11.005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2004.11.005
  5. Ricles, J., Sause, R., Garlock, M. and Zhao, C. (2001), "Posttensioned seismic-resistant connections for steel frames", J. Struct. Eng., 127, 113-121. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2001)127:2(113). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2001)127:2(113)
  6. Rojas, P., Ricles, J. and Sause, R. (2005), "Seismic performance of posttensioned steel moment resisting frames with friction devices", J. Struct. Eng., 131, 529-540. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:4(529). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:4(529)
  7. Sabelli, R., Mahin, S. and Chang, C. (2003), "Seismic demands on steel braced frame buildings with buckling restrained braces", Eng. Struct., 5, 655-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00175-X.
  8. Sarno, D., Elnashai, L. and Nethercot, D. (2006), "Seismic retrofitting of framed structures with stainless steel", J. Constr. Steel Res., 62, 93-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.05.007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.05.007
  9. Seismosoft, SeismoMatch (2016), A Computer Program for Spectrum Matching of Earthquake Records, www.seismosoft.com.
  10. Tremblay, R., Lacerte, M. and Christopoulos, C. (2008), "Seismic response of multistory buildings with self-centering energy dissipative steel braces", J. Struct. Eng., 134, 108-120. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:1(108). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:1(108)
  11. Wu, C., Loh, C., Yang, Y. and Lin, C. (2004), "Consideration of collapse and residual deformation in reliability-based performance evaluation of buildings", Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering (CAEE), Vancouver, Canada.
  12. ATC 63 (2008), Quantification of Building Seismic Performance, FEMA project, U.S.
  13. Atlayan, O. and Charney, F. (2014), "Hybrid buckling-restrained braced frames", J. Constr. Steel Res., 96, 95-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2014.01.001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2014.01.001
  14. Beaumont, E. and Annan, C. (2016), "Cyclic response of structural stainless steel plate under large inelastic strains", Proceeding of Resilient Infra-Structure, London, CA.
  15. Black, C.J., Makris, N. and Aiken, ID. (2000), "Component testing, stability analysis, and characterization of buckling restrained braced frames", PEER Report No 8, Berkeley, CA.
  16. Chou, C., Tsai, W. and Ping-Ting, C. (2016), "Development and validation tests of a dual-core self-centering sandwiched buckling-restrained brace for seismic resistance", J. Eng. Struct., 121, 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.04.015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.04.015
  17. Christopoulos, C., Filiatrault, A., Folz, B. and Uang, C. (2002), "Posttensioned energy dissipating connections for momentresisting steel frames", J. Struct. Eng., 128, 1111-1120. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:9(1111). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:9(1111)
  18. Christopoulos, C., Pampanin, S. and Priestley, M. (2003), "Performance-based seismic response of frame structures including residual deformations, Part I: Single degree of freedom systems", J. Earthq. Eng., 7, 97-118.
  19. AISC (2010), Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, USA.
  20. Amador, T., Jorge, R. and Eden, B. (2015), "Flexible frames as self-centering mechanism for buildings having bucklingrestrained braces", J. Earthq. Eng., 19, 978-990. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2015.1011813. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2015.1011813
  21. Christopoulos, C., Tremblay, R., Kim, H. and Lacerte, M. (2008), "Self-centering energy dissipative bracing system for the seismic resistance of structure, Development and validation", J. Struct. Eng., 134, 96-107. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:1(96). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:1(96)
  22. Clark, P., Aiken, I., Kasai, K., Ko, E. and Kimura, I. (1999), "Design procedures for buildings incorporating hysteretic damping devices". Proceedings of the 69th annual convention, SEAOC, Sacramento, CA..
  23. Craft, J. and Jennifer, L. (2015), "Reducing drifts in buckling rstrained braced frames through elastic stories", BYU university Scholar Archive, PhD Thesis, No. 4430.
  24. Deylami, A. and Mahdavipour, M. (2016), "Probabilistic seismic demand assessment of residual drift for Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames as a dual system", Struct. Saf., 58, 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2015.08.004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2015.08.004
  25. Dong, H., Du, X., Han, Q., Hao, H., Bi, K. and Wang, X. (2017), "Performance of an innovative self-centering buckling restrained brace for mitigating seismic responses of bridge structures with double-column piers", Eng. Struct., 148, 47-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.06.011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.06.011
  26. Dusicka, P., Itani, A. and Ian, G. (2007), "Cyclic response of plate steels under large inelastic strains", J. Constr. Steel Res., 63, 156-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.03.006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.03.006
  27. Fahnestock, L., Ricles, J. and Sause, R. (2007), "Experimental evaluation of a large-scale buckling-restrained braced frame", J. Struct. Eng., 133, 1205-1214. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:9(1205). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:9(1205)
  28. Fahnestock, L., Sause, R. and Ricles, J. (2007), "Seismic response and performance of buckling-restrained braced frames", J. Struct. Eng., 133, 1195-1204. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:9(1195). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:9(1195)
  29. Gardner, L., Bu, Y., Francis, P., Baddoo, N., Cashell, K. and McCann, F. (2016), "Elevated temperature material properties of stainless steel reinforcing bar", Constr. Build. Mater., 114, 977-997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.009
  30. Garlock, M., Ricles, J. and Sause, R. (2005), "Experimental Studies of full scale posttensioned steel connections", J. Struct. Eng., 131, 438-448. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:3(438). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:3(438)
  31. Ghowsi, A. and Sahoo, D. (2015), "Fragility assessment of buckling-restrained braced frames under near-field earthquakes", Steel Compos. Struct., 19, 173-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.12989/scs.2015.19.1.173. https://doi.org/10.12989/scs.2015.19.1.173
  32. Guo, Y., Tong, J., Zhang, B., Zhu, B. and Pi, Y. (2017), "Theoretical and experimental investigation of core-separated buckling-restrained braces", J. Constr. Steel Res., 135, 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.04.019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.04.019
  33. Hoveidae, N. and Rafezy, B. (2012), "Overall buckling behavior of all-steel buckling restrained braces", J. Constr. Steel Res., 79, 151-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.07.022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.07.022
  34. Hoveidae, N., Tremblay, R., Rafezy, B. and Davaran, A. (2015), "Numerical investigation of seismic behavior of short-core allsteel buckling restrained braces", J. Constr. Steel Res., 114, 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2015.06.005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2015.06.005
  35. Inoue, K., Sawaizumi, S. and Higashibata, Y. (2001), "Stiffening requirements for unbonded braces encased in concrete panels", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 127, 712-719. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2001)127:6(712). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2001)127:6(712)
  36. Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings (2014), Standard No. 2800, 4th Edition, Building and Housing Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
  37. Kim, H. and Christopoulos, C. (2009), "Numerical models and ductile ultimate deformation response of post-tensioned selfcentering moment connections", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 38, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.836. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.836
  38. McCormick, J., Aburano, H., Ikenaga, M. and Nakashima, M. (2008), "Permissible residual deformation levels for building structures considering both safety and human elements", Proceedings of the 14th World Conference Earthquake Engineering, Seismological Press of China, Beijing.
  39. OpenSees, (2007), Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, University of California, Berkeley, California: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.