Seasonal Change in the Quality Characteristics of Commercial Kimchi

국내 유통 김치의 계절별 품질특성 변화

Lee, Jae Yong;Cheon, Seon Hwa;Kim, Su-Ji;Lee, Hee-Min;Lee, Hae-Won;You, Su-Yeon;Yoon, So Ra;Hwang, In Min;Jung, Ji-Hye;Kim, Sung Hyun

  • Received : 2019.03.25
  • Accepted : 2019.04.24
  • Published : 2019.04.30


This study evaluated the physicochemical and microbial quality characteristic of seasonal commercial kimchi for hygienic safety levels. The pH of seasonal commercial kimchi was 3.84-6.36 and the titratable acidity and salinity of the samples were 0.21-1.16 and 1.19-1.54%, respectively. The content of nitrate and nitrite in the commercial kimchi were lower in the spring and summer, which was affected by acidic condition of the kimchi depending on fermentation. Heavy metal contents in commercial kimchi are not an issue because they were detected only at very low levels. The total aerobic bacteria and coliforms counts ranged from 5.25 to 8.44 Log CFU/g and 0.00 to 5.08 Log CFU/g, respectively. The total aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected more in summer than in the other seasons. E. coli was detected in three of the samples tested. Food-borne pathogens were not detected in any of the samples except for B. cereus. B. cereus was detected in the fall in more than 70% of samples. These results suggest that commercial kimchi distributed in the fall maintain the quality properties and the microbiological safety of kimchi compared to the other seasons. Therefore, further studies as an effective distribution system for the particular seasons will be needed to guarantee the hygienic safety levels of commercial kimchi required by the consumers.


Commercial kimchi;seasons;quality characteristics;hygienic safety


  1. Bang BH, Seo JS, Jeong EJ. 2008. A method for maintaining good kimchi quality during fermentation. J Korean Soc, Food Sci. Nutr., 21(1): 51-55
  2. Chang JY, Choi YR, Chang HC. 2011. Change in the Microbial Profiles of Commercial Kimchi during Fermentation. Korean J. Food Preserv., 18(5): 786-794
  3. Cho HJ, Cho JA. 1998. The study on the kimchi in Chulra-Do. J. Natural sci., 17(1): 166-172
  4. Cho SK, Moon JS, Kim YJ, Kim JE, Choi HY, Ahn JE, Otgonbayar G. E., Eom HJ, Kim TJ, Kim YM, Kim HR, Han HS. 2012. Comparison of Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Commercial Kimchi Products in Korea and Japan. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 44(2): 155-161
  5. Choi EJ, Jeong MC, Ku KH. 2015. Effect of seasonal cabbage cultivar (Brassica rapa L ssp. Pekinesis) on the quality characteristics of salted-Kimchi cabbages during storage period. Korean J. Food Preserv. 22(3): 303-313
  6. Choi EY, Kim JS, Kim HC, Kim HR, Han GJ, Chun HK. 2004. Safety Evaluation of Lead and Cadmium in Domestic and Imported Kimchi, J. Fd. Hyg. Safety, 19(1): 911
  7. Choi HS. 2005. Physiological composition and health functionality of Kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Preserv., 4(1):2-10
  8. Hwang JW. Song YO. 2000. The effect of solvent fractions of Kimchi on plasma lipid concentration of rabbit fed high cholesterol diet. J. Korean Soc Food Sci. Nutr., 29(2): 204-210
  9. Jeon CG. 2009. Marketing Analysis of the Imported Kimchi and Challenges for the Domestic Kimchi Industry. Korean Food Marketing Association, KFMA., 26(2): 79-101
  10. Ji YS, Kim HN, Park HJ, Lee JE, Lee HJ, Shin HK, Kim BJ, Franz CMAP, Holzapfel WH. 2013. Functionality and safety of lactic bacterial strains from Korean kimchi. Food Cont., 31(2): 467-473
  11. Kang H, Moon JS, Lee MG, Han NS. 2016. Immunomodulatory effects of Leuconostoc citreum EFEL2061 isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean food, on the Th2 type-dominant immune response in vitro and in vivo. J. Funct. Food, 20: 79-87
  12. Kang KH, Lee SJ, Ha ES, Sung NJ, Kim JG, Kim SH, Kim SH, Chung MJ. 2016. Effects of Nitrite and Nitrate Contents of Chinese Cabbage on Formation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine during Storage of Kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 45(1): 117-125
  13. Ko JL, Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH. 2009. Depletion of Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Commercial Kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 38(7): 892-901
  14. Korea Agro-Fisheries & Food Trade Corporation. 2017. Status of Processed Food Subdivision Market. Korea Agro-Fisheries & Food Trade Corporation, Seoul, Korea, pp 64-68
  15. Ku HS, Noh JS, Kim HJ, Cheigh HS, Song YO. 2007. Antioxidant effects of sea tangle added korean cabbage kimchi in vitro and in vivo. J Korean Soc Food Sci. Nutr., 36(12): 1497-1502
  16. Ku KH, Choi EJ, Jeong MC. 2014. Comparison of quality characteristics between seanal cultivar of salted-Kimchi cabbage (Brassica rapa L ssp. Pekinesis). Korean J. Food Preserv. 21(4): 512-519
  17. Ku KH, Jeong MC, Chung SK. 2013. Industrialization of salted Chinese cabbages and fresh-cut Chinese cabbage. Food Sci. Indus., 46(4): 2-11
  18. Lee EH, Kim SK, Jeon JK, Chung SH, Cha YJ. 1982. Nitrate and nitrite content of some fermented sea foods and vegetables. Korean J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 15(2): 147-153
  19. Lee EJ, Park SE, Choi HS, Han GJ, Kang SA, Park KY. 2010. Quality characteristics of kimchi fermented in permeability-controlled polyethylene containers. J. Korean Food Preserv., 17(6): 793-799
  20. Lee HJ, Jeong SY, Kim JH, Yoo SR. 2016. Comparative quality analysis of kimchi products manufactured in Korea, Japan, and China. Korean J. Food Preserv., 23(7): 967-976
  21. Lee JY, Park YH, Jang BC, Kim SC, Kim PJ, Ryu SN. 2005. Variation of Nitrate Content on Distributed Vegetables in Korea. Korean J. Crop. Sci., 50(S): 231-238
  22. Lee YH, Yang LW. 1970. Studies on the packaging and preservation of kimchi. J. Korean soc. Agric chem. Biotechnol., 13(3): 207-218
  23. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Korea Food Standards Codex (식품공전), (accessed 2019.03.11)
  24. Mirvish SS, Wallcave L, Eagen M, Shubik P. 1972. Ascorbate-nitrite reaction: possible means of blocking the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Science, 177(4043): 65-68
  25. Mirvish SS. 1970. Kinetics of dimethylamine nitrosation in relation to nitrosamine carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 44(3): 633-639
  26. Nordin HR (1969) The depletion of added sodium nitrite in ham. Can Inst Food Sci Technol., J., 2(2): 79-85
  27. Oh CK, Oh MY, Kim SH. 2004. The depletion of sodium nitrite by lactic acid bacteria from kimchi. J. Med. Food, 7(1): 38-44
  28. Park YH, Kim YS, Kim SB. 2009. Consumer preference for salted cabbage in Gyeonggi province. Food Sci. Indus., 42(3): 28-34
  29. Seo HJ, Han SY, Choi HS, Han GJ, Park HY. 2012. Quality Characteristics of Cabbage Kimchi by Different Packaging materials. Korean J. Food Cookery Sci., 28(2): 207-214
  30. Shin SM, Park JY, Kim CJ, Hahn YS. 2005. Investigation of some harmful bacteria in commercial Kimchi. Korean J. Food Cookery Sci., 21(2): 195-200
  31. Song HJ, Lee HJ. 2014. Consumption of kimchi, a salt fermented vegetable, is not associated with hypertension prevalence. J. Ethn. Food, 1(1): 8-12
  32. Yi SH, Park SY, Jeong DH, Kim JY, Lee AJ, Shin HA, Moon JH, Lee JH, Kim SE, Ryou HJ, Om AS. 2009. Survey Research of Homemade and Commercial Cabbage (Baechu) Kimchi on Physicochemical Quality Characteristics. Korean J. Food Cookery Sci., 25(6): 671-676
  33. You JH, Kwak EJ, Shin MJ. 2007. A study on kimchi preference and the types of kimchi purchased at markets to improve kimchi marketing. J. East Asian Soc. Diet Life, 17(4): 511-519


Supported by : 세계김치연구소