Comprehensive Study on the Origins and Changes in Kimchi Recipe

김치의 기원과 제조변천과정에 대한 종합적 연구

  • Received : 2019.04.12
  • Accepted : 2019.04.22
  • Published : 2019.04.30


This paper provides a comprehensive description of previous studies of making and developing kimchi in terms of the origins of kimchi and the changes in the history of kimchi, along with newly discovered data, including the collection of works in Joseon Dynasty as well as old cookbooks discovered after the year 2000, and latest research in related disciplines, e.g., ancient history studies, archeology, and linguistics. Because new ruins and relics, such as the Liao-ho Civilization in the Northeast Asia continent, which was closely related to Dongyi tribes, have been discovered and studied, it is important to determine how to reflect the outcome of archeological studies on the origin of preserved vegetables. In addition, to describe the background and changes in the independent formation of making Korean kimchi chronologically, they were divided into the following: development from jjanji to singunji; formation of the basis for seokbakji dressed with fermented fish sauce; settlement of seokbakji culture for dressing seokbakji with fermented fish sauce and spices, including chili varieties when they were introduced; and establishment of the method for making whole cabbage kimchi, which is currently typical kimchi made by adding the seokbakji as the stuffing of the cabbage kimchi, to examine the time and specific details of the change.

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_f0001.png 이미지

Distribution Area of “Dongyi” (Choi 2009)

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_f0002.png 이미지

Records and Timeline Related with Pickled Vegetable in Ancient Period

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_f0003.png 이미지

Large Stone Jars (石瓮) in Sok-li-san Beopjusa (法住寺) 180 cm (diameter)×225 cm (depth) Chungcheongbuk-do Tangible Cultural Heritage No 204 © the Author (June 6, 2018)

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_f0004.png 이미지

Soy Sauce Jar and Storage House Remains in Namwon Silsangsa (實相寺) © Cultural Heritage Administration (문화재청)

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_f0005.png 이미지

Soy Sauce Jar and Storage House Remains in Samcheok Heungjeon-ri Temple site © Cultural Heritage Administration (문화재청)

Stage of Technology Development of Pickled Vegetables

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_t0001.png 이미지

Examples of the Use of Pepper(椒) and Spices in Kimchi Recipe of Joseon Dynasty

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_t0002.png 이미지

Examples of the Use of Pepper(椒) and Spices in Kimchi Recipe of Joseon Dynasty (continued)

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_93_t0003.png 이미지


Supported by : 세계김치연구소


  1. Eonmunhusaengnok (諺文厚生錄). Late 1800s. Korea
  2. Eumsikbo (飮食譜) End of 1700s. Korea
  3. Geogapiryong (居家必用) In: Kim IK, Lee JW, Park CL editors. 2015. World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, Korea
  4. Geogapiryong (居家必用). China
  5. Gyugonyoram (閨壼要覽). 1896. Korea
  6. Jubangmun (酒方文). 1680s. Korea
  7. Juchan (酒饌). 1800s. Korea
  8. Juchochimjeobang (酒醋沈菹方). 1500s or Early 1600s. Korea
  9. Jurye (周禮). China
  10. Jusikbangmun (酒食方文). the end of 1800s. Korea
  11. Jusiksiui (酒食是義). the end of 1800s. Korea
  12. Salleunghyangsuchaek (山陵享需冊). 1897. Korea
  13. Samgukji (三國志). China
  14. Sejongsillok (世宗實錄). Korea
  15. Sigyeong (詩經). BC 10C. China
  16. Siuijeonseo (是議全書). End of 1800s. Korea
  17. Sulbinneunbeop (술빚는법). End of 1800s. Korea
  18. Yegi (禮記). China
  19. Yorok (要錄). 1680. Korea
  20. An JY. 2002. A Study on the Sae-u-jut (Salted Shrimps)-Production in the Coast of Yellow Sea and It's Effects on Dietary Life in the 19th Century. Mater's degree thesis, Chung-Ang University
  21. Ann SJ. 1994. A comparative study on the fermented vegetables in the Jeminyosul and Korean Kimchi. Gajeongmunhwanonchong 8;27-39
  22. Ann YG, Lee GC. 2008. Traditional Kimchi (전통김치). Kyomunsa, Korea
  23. Ann YG, Mun YJ. 2015. Traditional Jeupjang-A Study on Traditional Jeupjang (Succulent Jang). J. Korean Society of Food & Nutrition 28(5)
  24. Baek DH. 2016. Research on the Etymology of Kimchi (김치의 어원). Kimchi, the Korean People's Enthusiasm (興) and Pathos (恨) (김치, 한민족의 흥과 한). World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, pp 345-395
  25. Bang SY (方信榮). 1918. Joseonyorijebeop (朝鮮料理製法). Gwangikseogwan, Korea
  26. Bang SY (方信榮). 1921. Joseonyorijebeop (朝鮮料理製法). Gwangikseogwan, Korea
  27. Bingheogak Lee (憑虛閣 李氏). 1809. Gyuhapchongseo (閨閤叢書). Korea
  28. Cha KH. 2005. Effect of the Introduction of Foreign Food in the Middle of Chosun Dynasty-Potato & sweet potato,bean pulse,vegetables. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 20(4);487-497
  29. Cho BH. 1938. Jeochaego. Suwonnonghakhoebo 3;20-23
  30. Cho JS. 1994. Historical Review of Kimchi. The East Asian Society of Dietary Life 4(2)
  31. Cho SJ. 2007. Kimchi and Cultural Knowledge: A Cognitive Anthropological Approach to a Folk Classification of Jeollado Kimchi. Korean Cultural Anthropology 40(1); 83-127
  32. Cho WG. 2010. A Historical Study of Korean Traditional Radish Kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 25(4)
  33. Cho Y, Yi JH. 1994. Effect of Kimchi Submaterial on the Growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum. Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science 10(1)
  34. Choi DK. 2004. The Origin of Soybean Cultivation and The Korean Peninsula. Journal of Chinese historical researches 31;65-110
  35. Chung RW. 2008. Understanding the Kimchi Culture of Nineteenth Century through the Limwonsibrheukji. Baehwanonchong 26
  36. Chung ST, Park YK. 1999. A Review on Preparing Methods of Traditional Jeupjang. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 14(2); 103-113
  37. Chung YS. 2008. A Review of the Change of the Name of Kimchi. Inmunnonchong 17;93-110
  38. Cultural Heritage Administration (문화재청). Press Release. 2015.10.27.;§ionId=b_sec_1&pageIndex=5&mn=NS_01_02&strWhere=&strValue=&sdate=&edate=, [accessed 2019.02.01.]
  39. Cultural Heritage Administration (문화재청). Press Release. 2017.12.5.;§ionId=b_sec_1&pageIndex=4&mn=NS_01_02&strWhere=&strValue=&sdate=&edate=, [accessed 2019.02.01.]
  40. Ga SH (賈思勰) Jeminyosul (齊民要術). China
  41. Ginta Satoshi (銀田鐵彌). 1906. Investigation on Cultivation of Fruit and Vegetables in Korea (韓國ニ於ケル果樹蔬菜栽培調査). Korea
  42. Haeju Choi. 1600s. Choissy Eumsikbeop (崔氏飮食法). Korea
  43. Han BR, Kim GY. 2018. A Study on the Food Culture in the Early Joseon Dynasty through Gyemiseo (癸未書). J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 33(4)
  44. Hong MS (洪萬選 1643-1715). Sallimgyeongje (山林經濟). Korea
  45. Jang GH (張桂香). 1670s. Eumsikdimibang (음식디미방). Korea
  46. Jang JH. 1972. History of the Manufacturing of Korean 'Kimchi'. Korean Classics Studies 6;1-74
  47. Jang JH. 1975. A Historical Study of the Origin of Kimchi. Song Sim Research Journal 6;149-174
  48. Jeon SE (全循義). 1400s. Sangayorok (山家要錄). Korea
  49. Jeong YY (丁若鏞). 1800s. Dasansimunjip (茶山詩文集). Korea
  50. Joo YH. 1993. A Study on the Origin of Kimchi. People and Culture 1;147-175
  51. Joo YH. 1994. Kimchi, food for Koreans (김치, 한국인의 먹거리). Gong-gan Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea
  52. Kang YJ. 2012. A Study on the Etymology of "Kimchi"- Through Compare Korean and Chinese. Chinese language and literature 53;417-446
  53. Kim A, Choi SH. 2002. Korean history special 1. Sinwonmunhwasa, Korea
  54. Kim BS (金富軾). 1145. Samguksagi (三國史記). Korea
  55. Kim CU (金昌業 1658-1721). Nogajaejip (老稼齋集). Korea
  56. Kim DH. 2012. The research for the distribution of changes in the name of 'Kimchi' on the Korean peninsula. dialectology 16
  57. Kim JD. 2009. Controversy over "Gocho". Korean Journal of Agricultural History 8(1);105-125
  58. Kim JH. 1995. Effect of Various Kimchi Seasonings on Salted Cabbage During Fermentation. Seoulbogeondae nonmunjip 15(1)
  59. Kim JS, Hong GO. 2009. Study for The Name of Kimchi-the comparison between Kyeong-buk and Kyeong-nam provinces-. Hanminjok Emunhak 54;131-164
  60. Kim KS (金景善). 1832. Yeonwonjikji (燕轅直指). Korea
  61. Kim R (金金慮 1766-1822). 1800s. Manseonwainggo (萬蟬窩膡藁). Korea
  62. Kim SB. 1998. The Accessible Study on the Hypothesis About Seeing if Jeo (菹) of Jeminyosul is Back-Jae's Kimchi I. J. Korean Soc. Food Culture, 13(2);135-139
  63. Kim SB. 1998. The Accessible Study on the Hypothesis About Seeing if Jeo (菹) of Jeminyosul is Back-Jae's Kimchi II. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 13(3);153-158
  64. Kim Y (金綏, 1491-1555). 1540s. Suwunjapbang (需雲雜方). Korea
  65. Koh KH. 2015. Food Culture of Koryo Dynasty from Viewpoint of Marine Relics of Taean Mado Shipwreck No. 3. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 30(2)
  66. Kwon B (權鼈). 1400s. Haedongjamnok (海東雜錄). Korea
  67. Kwon DY, Chung KR, Yang HJ, Jang DJ. 2011. The Story of Red Pepper (고추이야기). Hyoil Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea
  68. Kwon JH. 2014. Study on Fermented Foods of Unified Silla-Based on the Mokkan (木簡) excavated from Anapji (雁鴨池). Mokkan and Letters 12;43-57
  69. Lee CH, Ann BS. 1995. History of Kimchi making: Literature Review on Kimchi , Korean Fermented Vegetable Foods. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 10(4);311-319
  70. Lee GB (李奎報). 1200s. Donggugisanggukjip (東國李相國集). Korea
  71. Lee GK (李圭景 1788-1856). Ojuyeonmunjangjeonsango (五洲衍文長箋散稿). Korea
  72. Lee GM. 1999. Dinchae (딤채) and Dhi (디히). Saegugeosaenghwal 9(1)
  73. Lee HG. 1994. A Historical Study on Korean Kimchi Culture. Rural life science 16(1);30-34
  74. Lee HK. 1988. A biographical study on the culture of Kimchi. Master's degree thesis, Hanyang University, Korea
  75. Lee JH. 1989. Review on Historical change of Kimchis in Korea. Journal of Human Science 9(1);87-97
  76. Lee JS. 2015. A Study on Susuborjii (ススホリ菹). J. Japan Studies 64.
  77. Lee S (李穡). 1300s. Mogeunsigo (牧隱詩藁). Korea
  78. Lee SP (李時弼 1657-1724). 1700s. Somunsaseol (謏問事設). Korea
  79. Lee SW (李瑞雨 1633-1709). Songpajip (松坡集). Korea
  80. Lee SW. 1975. Studies on movements and interchanges of Kimchi in China, Korea and Japan. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 4(1);71-95
  81. Lee SW. 1987. Kimchi index in Korean ancient documents. The Journal of Korean living science research 5;277-290
  82. Lee SW. 1997. Korea Food and Culture History (한국식품문화사). Kyomunsa Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea
  83. Lee YH. 2007. Language and letter life of Silla through wooden tablets. Study of Gugyeol (구결연구) 18;107-139
  84. Lu Fuwei (呂不韋 ?-BC 235). Yeossichunchu (呂氏春秋). China
  85. Park CL, Kwon YM. 2017. A Study on the Kimchi Recipe in the Early Joseon Dynasty through Juchochimjeobang (酒醋沈菹方). J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 32(5)
  86. Park CL, Lee JY. 2015. Review of Dietary Culture through Choi's Eumsikbeop in Jasonbojeon of Shin-chang Maeng's Cran. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 30(5);552-561
  87. Park CL. 2006. A Literature Review on the Methods Kimchi made in the first half of the Twentieth Century. Master's degree thesis, Sookmyung University, Korea
  88. Park CL. 2012. A Study on the Establishment of Kimchi Culture and Meal Customs in the Joseon Period. Doctor's degree thesis, The Academy of Korean Studies, Korea
  89. Park CL. 2013(a). Korean Kimjang culture: history, significance and future. The humanistic understanding of Kimchi & Kimjang Culture. World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, pp 39-82
  90. Park CL. 2013(b). Roots of Joseon dynasty Kimchi (조선시대김치의 탄생): a deep, wide study of culture, cuisine and folklore. Minsokwon, Korea
  91. Park CL. 2014. Review on Uniqueness of the Origin of Kimchi Based on the Process of Development. The humanistic understanding of Kimchi. World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, pp 79-112
  92. Park CL. 2015. Contents and Value in Jasonbojeon Choi's Recipe book of Shin-chang Maeng's Family. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 30(2);137-149
  93. Park CL. 2017. Sodium in kimchi and food faddism. J. Food science & industry 50(3);60-69
  94. Park CL. 2018(a). Reviews and Tasks of Traditional Korean Food Research through ancient literature (고문헌을 통한 민족 음식사 연구 성과와 과제). Presentation Sourcebook of The Symposium of Korean Food and Humanities (한식의 인문학심포지엄발표집, 2018.9.20.), p 68, p 76
  95. Park CL. 2018(b). Traditional Food Culture Shown in the Chinese Poetry of Joseon Dynasty-Focusing on poems about fruit vegetables in Manseonwainggo written by Kim Ryeo. Korean Journal of Folk Studies 42;5-45
  96. Park JG (朴齊家). 1800s. Bukhagui (北學議). In: Ahn DH editor. 2013. Dolbegae Publishing Co., Korea
  97. Park JG (朴齊家). 1800s. Bukhagui (北學議). Korea
  98. Park JG. (朴齊家) 1800s. Jeongyugakjip (貞蕤閣集). In: Park SM editor. 2010. Dolbegae Publishing Co., Korea
  99. Park YM. 2016. Cultivation and Utilization of Pulse Crops by Ancient Koreans. The Journal of Dangun Studies 35;83-108
  100. Ryu JI (柳重臨). 1766. Jeungbosallimgyeongje (增補山林經濟). Korea
  101. Sasaki Michio (佐𠚤木道雄). 2009. The Cultural Hisory of Kimchi (キムチの文化史). Fukumura Publishing Co. (福村出版), Japan
  102. Seo MR, Chung HS. 2015. A Literature Study on the Amount of Red Pepper in Cabbage Kimchi between the Decades from 1920 to 2010 in Cookbooks, Newspapers and Magazines. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 30(5)
  103. Seo YG (徐有榘). 1827. Imwongyeongjeji (林園經濟志). Korea
  104. Shin GS. 2005. The History of Chinese Zu (菹). Doctor's degree thesis, Ewha Womans University, Korea, pp 15-19
  105. Song HJ. 2014. Opinion about the danger of controversy in Korea Ancient history. J. History to open tomorrow 56;133-145
  106. Wu SH. 2006. The Doctrine of Liao-he Civilization' (遼河文明論) as a final phase of 'Dong-buk Project' (東北工程, Northeast Historical Project of China). The Journal of Dan-gun Studies 15;5-36
  107. Yang DE. 2010. A Study of Liaohe Civilization and Hongshan Culture. Journal of Koreanology 5;209-239
  108. Yang HJ. 2017. Scientific Discussion on History and Science of Kochu (Chilli). Doctor's degree thesis, Yong-In University, Korea
  109. Yoon DI. 1979. A Comparative Study on the Early and Late Chosun in Kimchi Making Process. Master's degree thesis, Chung-Ang University, Korea
  110. Yoon SS. 1987. The origin of soy sauces and salted vegetables of ancient Korean on the bases of the records of 'Syosoing Monjo'. Gajeongmunhwanonchong 1;91-102
  111. Yoon SS. 1988. History of Kimchi. Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science 4(1)
  112. Yoon SS. 1991. A Historical Review of Korean Kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 6(4);467-477
  113. Yu X (劉熙). BC 200s. Seongmyeong (釋名). China
  114. Zhu Q (朱權 1378-1448). 1400s. Sineunji (神隱志). China