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Digital Documentation and Short-term Monitoring on Original Rampart Wall of the Gyejoksanseong Fortress in Daejeon, Korea

대전 계족산성 원형성벽의 디지털기록화 및 단기모니터링 연구

  • Kim, Sung Han (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Lee, Chan Hee (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Jo, Young Hoon (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University)
  • 김성한 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과) ;
  • 이찬희 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과) ;
  • 조영훈 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과)
  • Received : 2019.03.27
  • Accepted : 2019.04.11
  • Published : 2019.04.28

Abstract

This study was carried out unmanned aerial photography and terrestrial laser scanning to establish digital database on original wall of Gyejoksanseong fortress, and measured ground control points for continuity of the monitoring. It also performed precise examination with the naked eye, unmanned aerial photogrammetry, endoscopy, total station and handy measurement to examine the structural stability of the original walls. The ground control points were considered as a point where visual field can be secured, 3 points were selected around each of the south and north walls. For the right side of the south original wall, aerial photogrammetry was conducted using drones and a deviation analysis of 3-dimensional digital models was performed for short-term monitoring. As a result, the two original walls were almost matched in range within 5mm, and no difference indicating displacement of stones was found, except for partial deviation. Regular monitoring of the areas with structural deformation such as bulging, weak and fracture zone by precisely examining with the naked eye and using high-resolution photo data revealed no distinct change. The inner foundation observed through endoscopy found out that filling stones of the original walls were still remained, while most filling soil was lost. As a result of measuring the total station focusing around the points with structural deformation on the original walls, the maximum displacements of the north and south walls were somewhat high with 6.6mm and 3.8mm, respectively, while the final displacements were relatively stable at below 2.9mm and 1.4mm, respectively. Handy measurement also did not reveal clear structural deformation with displacements below 0.82mm at all points. Even though the results of displacement monitoring on the original walls are stable, it is hard to secure structural stability due to the characteristics of ramparts where sudden brittle fracture occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct conservational scientific diagnosis, precise monitoring, and structural analysis based on the 3-dimensional figuration information obtained in this research.

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Fig. 1. Original wall and ground control points for survey in Gyejoksanseong fortress. (1 and 2) Original wall of north and south area, respectively.

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Fig. 2. Original walls of Gyejoksanseong fortress. (A) Original wall of north side. (B) Supporting terrace of north original wall. (C) Temporary treatments for unstable area in north wall. (D) Reconstructed walls in left side and original walls in right side of south area. (E) General view if original wall in south area. (F) Enlarged photo for original wall in right side of photo E.

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Fig. 3. Three dimensional laser reflection mapping and point clouds data for original walls. (A) Plane of reflection point clouds data for north original wall. (B) Scanning point for north original wall. (C) Measurements of RGB point clouds data for north original wall. (D) Plane view of reflection point clouds data for south original wall. (E) Scanning point for south original wall. (F) Measurements of RGB point clouds data for south original wall.

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Fig. 4. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry showing the original wall in south area. (A) Stereoscopic view of texture mapping modeling. (B) Stereoscopic view of polygon mesh modeling (C) Result of the first photogrammetry in September, 2017. (D) Result of the second photogrammetry in March, 2018.

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Fig. 5. Configuration processes showing the first and second modeling result of original wall in south area.

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Fig. 7. Representative damages showing stone properties of original wall. (A) Cracks and fractures in stones. (B) Loss and dehiscence of stones. (C) Deformation and weak zone of the wall. (D) Protuberant zone of the wall. (E) Slackened and protuberant zone of the wall by plant roots. (F) Highly weathered zone of the wall.

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Fig. 9. Endoscope monitoring points and images showing north and south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of upper and lower photographs, respectively

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Fig. 10. Measurement points showing light wave total station for north and south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Table 4 to 6 and 7 to 9.

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Fig. 11. Points showing handy displacement measurements of north and south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Table 10 and 11.

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Fig. 12. Diagrams showing handy displacement measurements of north original walls.

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Fig. 13. Diagrams showing handy displacement measurements of south original walls.

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Fig. 6. Deviation analysis for short term monitering of original wall in south area.

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Fig. 8. Points for check list and recorded zones for damage monitering of original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Table 3.

Table 1. Methods of digital documentation and monitoring for Gyejoksanseong

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Table 2. Measurement result for ground control points of Gyejoksanseong fortress. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 1

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Table 3. Damage types and zones of original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 8

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Table 4. Result of light wave total station for north original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 10

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Table 5. Differences between each measurement for north original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 10

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Table 6. Result of displacement analysis for north original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 10

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Table 7. Result of light wave total station for south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 10

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Table 8. Differences between second and third measurement for south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 10

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Table 9. Result of displacement analysis for south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 10

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Table 10. Result of handy displacement measurements for north original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 11

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Table 11. Result of handy displacement measurements for south original walls. Numbers are the same as in those of Figure 11

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