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Characteristics of PM2.5 in Gwangju Evaluated by Factor Analysis

인자분석을 이용한 광주지역 초미세먼지(PM2.5)의 특성 연구

  • Lee, Se-Haeng (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering) ;
  • Lee, Kyung-Seog (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering) ;
  • Yoon, Sang-Hoon (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering) ;
  • Yang, Yoon-Cheol (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering) ;
  • Park, Ji-Young (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering) ;
  • Bae, Seok-Jin (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering) ;
  • Lee, Dae-Haeng (Gwanju Metropolitan Health & Environment Research Institute Department of Environmental Engineering)
  • 이세행 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부) ;
  • 이경석 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부) ;
  • 윤상훈 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부) ;
  • 양윤철 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부) ;
  • 박지영 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부) ;
  • 배석진 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부) ;
  • 이대행 (광주광역시보건환경연구원 환경연구부)
  • Received : 2019.02.13
  • Accepted : 2019.03.28
  • Published : 2019.04.30

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate the trends of air quality in the study area by analyzing monthly and seasonal concentration trends obtained from sampled data. To this aim, the mass concentrations of $PM_{2.5}$ in the air were analyzed, as well as those of metals, ions, and total carbon within the $PM_{2.5}$. The mean concentration of $PM_{2.5}$ was $22.7{\mu}g/m^3$. The mass composition of $PM_{2.5}$ was as follows: 31.1% of ionic species, 2.2% of metallic species, and 26.7% of carbonic species (EC and OC). Ionic species, especially sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, were the most abundant in the $PM_{2.5}$ and exhibited a high correlation coefficient with the mass concentration of $PM_{2.5}$. Seasonal variations of $PM_{2.5}$ showed a similar pattern to those of ionic and metallic species, with high concentrations during winter and spring. $PM_{2.5}$ also had a high correlation with the ionic species $NO_3{^-}$ and $NH_4{^+}$. In addition, $NH_4{^+}$ was highly correlated with $NO_3{^-}$. Through factor analysis, we identified four controlling factors, and determined the pollution sources using the United States Environmental Protection Agency(U.S. EPA) pollution profile. The first factor, accounting for 19.1% of $PM_{2.5}$ was attributed to motor vehicles and heating-related sources: the second factor indicated industry-related sources and secondary particles, and the other factors indicated soil, industry-related and marine sources. However, the pollution profile used in this study may be somewhat different from the actual situation in Korea, since it was obtained from US EPA. Therefore, to more accurately estimate the pollutants present in the air, a pollution profile for Korea should be produced.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 환경부, 광주광역시보건환경연구원

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