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A study on the fire characteristics according to the installation type of large smoke exhaust port in a small cross sectional tunnel fire

소단면 대심도 터널 화재시 대배기구의 설치형태에 따른 화재특성 연구

  • Received : 2018.12.10
  • Accepted : 2019.01.03
  • Published : 2019.01.31

Abstract

Recently, due to the efforts to mitigate traffic congestion and expansion of space efficiency, the construction of underground roads has been increased in big-scale cities. Since tunnels in the city have a higher chance for a fire leading to a great tragedy during a severe traffic jam than mountain tunnels, it is highly likely that it will be constructed as a tunnel, having a small cross section, for small vehicles. However, if they are constructed as such small-vehicle tunnels, it would be possible to reduce the design fire intensity while the concentration of harmful gases would increase due to a reduction in the small cross sectional area, led by a decrease in the tunnel height. In this study, behaviors of fire smoke by the installation interval and format of large-scale exhaust-gas ports were examined and compared in the analysis of temperatures and CO concentrations of a tunnel and its results were as the following. Although there were no significant differences in the smoke spreading distance between installation intervals, but in this study, 100 m was found to be the most effective installation interval. The smoke exhaustion performance was found to be excellent in the order of $4m{\times}3m$, $6m{\times}2m$, and $3m{\times}2m$ (2 lane) of the smoke spreading distance. Although there was no significant difference in the smoke spreading distance between formats of large-scale exhaust-gas ports, it was found that the smoke spreading distance was larger than other cases when it was $3m{\times}2m$ in the fire growing process. The analysis of smoke spreading distances by the aspect ratio showed that a smoke spreading distance was shorted when its the smoke spreading distance was found to be shorter when its traverse distance was relatively longer than its longitudinal distance.

최근 국내외 도심지역의 교통정체 완화와 공간의 효율성 증대를 위해 대도시내 도로의 지하화 시행빈도가 증가하고 있다. 도시부 터널은 극심한 정체상황 중 화재가 발생할 경우 대형 참사를 유발할 가능성이 산악터널보다 높기 때문에 소단면으로된 소형차전용터널로 시공이 될 가능성이 높다. 소형차 전용의 터널로 시공이 될 경우, 소형차 전용터널은 차량에 의한 설계화재강도를 감소할 수 있는 반면, 터널 높이 감소 등에 따른 단면적 축소에 따라 유해가스농도가 증가하여 위험도는 증가하는 상반된 특징이 있다. 본 연구에서는 수치해석을 통해 대배기구의 설치간격과 형태에 따른 화재양상을 터널 내 온도 및 CO농도를 분석하여 비교 검토하였으며, 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 설치간격에 따른 연기확산거리는 큰 차이가 없는 것으로 분석되었으나, 본 연구에서는 간격이 100 m인 경우가 가장 효과적으로 분석되었다. 대배기구 형상에 따른 연기확산거리는 $4m{\times}3m$, $6m{\times}2m$, $3m{\times}2m$ (2열) 순으로 배연성능이 우수한 것으로 분석되었으며, 대배기구 형상에 따른 연기확산거리는 플래시오버 이후에는 큰 차이가 없지만 화재 성장과정에서 $3m{\times}2m$인 경우 다른 경우보다 확산거리가 큰 것으로 분석되었고, 대배기구 종횡비에 따른 연기확산거리는 횡방향으로 긴 경우보다 종방향으로 긴 경우가 화재연기의 확산거리가 더 짧은 것으로 분석되었다.

Keywords

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Fig. 1. Cross-section

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Fig. 2. Type of smoke exhaust port

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Fig. 3. Simulation domain

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Fig. 4. Fire growth (HRR) curve

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Fig. 5. Diffusion length according to installation distance (upstream)

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Fig. 6. Diffusion length according to installation distance (downstream)

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Fig. 7. Diffusion length according to installation size (upstream)

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Fig. 8. Diffusion length according to installation size (downstream)

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Fig. 9. Diffusion length according to aspect ratio (upstream + downstream)

Table 1. Case of simulation

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Table 2. Boundary conditions & calculation method

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 대심도 복층터널 설계 및 시공 기술개발

Supported by : 국토교통과학기술진흥원

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