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Development of remote control automatic fire extinguishing system for fire suppression in double-deck tunnel

복층터널 화재대응을 위한 원격 자동소화 시스템 개발 연구

  • Park, Jinouk (Fire Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology) ;
  • Yoo, Yongho (Fire Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology) ;
  • Kim, Yangkyun (Fire Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology) ;
  • Park, Byoungjik (Fire Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology) ;
  • Kim, Whiseong (Fire Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology) ;
  • Park, Sangheon (Dong Il Engineering Consultants)
  • Received : 2018.12.03
  • Accepted : 2018.12.27
  • Published : 2019.01.31

Abstract

To effectively deal with the fire in tunnel which is mostly the vehicle fire, it's more important to suppress the fire at early stage. In urban tunnel, however, accessibility to the scene of fire by the fire fighter is very limited due to severe traffic congestion which causes the difficulty with firefighting activity in timely manner and such a problem would be further worsened in underground road (double-deck tunnel) which has been increasingly extended and deepened. In preparation for the disaster in Korea, the range of life safety facilities for installation is defined based on category of the extension and fire protection referring to risk hazard index which is determined depending on tunnel length and conditions, and particularly to directly deal with the tunnel fire, fire extinguisher, indoor hydrant and sprinkler are designated as the mandatory facilities depending on category. But such fire extinguishing installations are found inappropriate functionally and technically and thus the measure to improve the system needs to be taken. Particularly in a double-deck tunnel which accommodates the traffic in both directions within a single tunnel of which section is divided by intermediate slab, the facility or the system which functions more rapidly and effectively is more than important. This study, thus, is intended to supplement the problems with existing tunnel life safety system (fire extinguishing) and develop the remote-controlled automatic fire extinguishing system which is optimized for a double-deck tunnel. Consequently, the system considering low floor height and extended length as well as indoor hydrant for a wide range of use have been developed together with the performance verification and the process for commercialization before applying to the tunnel is underway now.

차량화재가 대부분인 터널 화재 사고에 효과적으로 대응하기 위해서는 초기에 화재를 진압하는 것이 가장 효율적이다. 그러나 도심지 터널의 경우 화재 사고시 차량 정체로 인해 소방대 투입이 어려워 신속한 소화 활동에 제약을 받으며, 이러한 문제는 최근 장대화 및 대심도화 되고 있는 지하도로(복층터널)의 경우 더욱더 심하게 나타날 것으로 판단된다. 국내의 경우 터널에서 발생되는 재난 재해에 대비하여 터널연장과 터널 조건별로 정해지는 위험도 지수를 토대로 연장등급과 방재등급을 산정하여 방재시설 설치 범위를 규정하고 있으며, 특히 터널 화재에 직접적으로 대응하기 위한 설비로 소화기구, 옥내소화전설비, 물분무설비 등을 등급에 따라 기본시설로 지정하고 있다. 그러나 이런 소화설비는 현실적으로 기능적이고 기술적인 측면에서 많은 약점이 발생되어 개선방안이 필요한 실정이다. 특히, 하나의 단면을 중간 슬래브로 나눠 상하행선으로 사용하는 형태인 복층터널의 경우 일반 소화설비보다 더 신속하고 효과적으로 화재 진압이 가능한 설비가 필요할 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 기존 터널 방재시설(소화설비)이 가지는 문제점을 보완하고, 복층터널의 구조적 특수성에 최적화된 원격 자동소화 시스템을 개발하였다. 그 결과로 낮은 층고를 고려한 장거리용 설비와 보급성을 확대한 옥내소화전용 설비 등 두 가지 형태의 시스템 개발을 완료하여 성능을 검증하였으며, 실제 터널에 보급되어 널리 활용될 수 있도록 현재 실용화를 추진 중에 있다.

Keywords

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Fig. 1. Operating process for remote control automatic fire extinguishing system

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Fig. 2. Design for automatic monitor

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Fig. 3. Projected area and maximum discharge height of water jet in accordance with nozzle angle

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Fig. 4. Remote control automatic fire extinguishing system for long distance

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Fig. 5. Remote control fire extinguishing system for fire hose station

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Fig. 6. Schematic of remote control fire extinguishing system for fire hose station

Table 1. Spray characteristics according to ejection angle (head height 1.6 m, ejection pressure 300 kPa)

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Table 2. Spray characteristics according to ejection pressure (head height 1.6 m, ejection angle 15°)

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 대심도 복층터널 설계 및 시공기술개발

Supported by : 국토교통과학기술진흥원

References

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  2. Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport (2016), "Road tunnel disaster prevention facility installation & management guideline", pp. 5-17.
  3. Statistics Korea (2017), "Time-based traffic accidents by road type-Accident statistics in tunnel and underground roads", KOSIS.
  4. Yoo, Y.H., Park, S.H., Han, S.J., Park, J.O. (2016), "The study on application of automatic monitor system for initial fire suppression in double-deck tunnel", Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 419-429. https://doi.org/10.9711/KTAJ.2016.18.5.419