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Evaluation of mechanical characteristics of marine clay by thawing after artificial ground freezing method

인공동결공법 적용 후 융해에 따른 해성 점토지반의 역학적 특성 평가

  • Choi, Hyun-Jun (Research Institute, Dongmyeong Engineering Consultants & Architecture Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Lee, Dongseop (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, Hyobum (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University) ;
  • Son, Young-Jin (Infra Engineering Team 2, SK Engineering & Construction) ;
  • Choi, Hangseok (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University)
  • 최현준 ((주)동명기술공단 부설연구소) ;
  • 이동섭 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학부) ;
  • 이효범 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학부) ;
  • 손영진 (SK건설 Infra Eng'g2팀) ;
  • 최항석 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학부)
  • Received : 2018.10.04
  • Accepted : 2018.10.26
  • Published : 2019.01.31

Abstract

The artificial ground freezing (AGF) method is a groundwater cutoff and/or ground reinforcement method suitable for constructing underground structures in soft ground and urban areas. The AGF method conducts a freezing process by employing a refrigerant circulating through a set of embedded freezing pipes to form frozen walls serving as excavation supports and/or cutoff walls. However, thermal expansion of the pore water during freezing may cause excessive deformation of the ground. On the other hand, as the frozen soil is thawed after completion of the construction, mechanical characteristics of the thawed soil are changed due to the plastic deformation of the ground and the rearrangement of soil fabric. This paper performed a field experiment to evaluate the freezing rate of marine clay in the application of the AGF method. The field experiment was carried out by circulating liquid nitrogen, which is a cryogenic refrigerant, through one freezing pipe installed at a depth of 3.2 m in the ground. Also, a piezo-cone penetration test (CPTu) and a lateral load test (LLT) were performed on the marine clay before and after application of the AGF method to evaluate a change in strength and stiffness of it, which was induced by freezing-thawing. The experimental results indicate that about 11.9 tons of liquid nitrogen were consumed for 3.5 days to form a cylindrical frozen body with a volume of about $2.12m^3$. In addition, the strength and stiffness of the ground were reduced by 48.5% and 22.7%, respectively, after a freezing-thawing cycle.

인공동결공법(artificial ground freezing method)은 연약지반 및 도심지에서의 지하구조물 시공에 적합한 차수 및 지반보강 공법이다. 인공동결공법은 동결관(freezing pipe)을 지중에 매설한 후 냉매(refregerant)를 순환시켜 대상 지반에 차수벽 및 지지체의 역할을 수행하는 동결벽체(frozen wall)를 형성한다. 그러나 간극수의 동결에 따른 간극수의 부피팽창은 지반의 변형을 야기시킬 수 있고, 시공완료 후 동결토의 융해에 따른 지반의 소성변형 및 입자의 재배치 등은 지반의 역학적 특성을 변화시킨다. 본 논문에서는 인공동결공법에 따른 해성 점토지반(marine clay)의 동결속도를 평가하기 위하여 인공동결공법 현장실증시험을 수행하였다. 현장실증시험은 지중에 3.2 m 깊이로 매설된 동결관 1공 내로 초저온 냉매인 액화질소를 순환시키는 방법으로 수행되었다. 또한, 원지반과 인공동결공법에 의해 동결/융해된 지반에 대한 피에조 콘 관입시험(piezo cone penetration test, CPTu) 및 공내재하시험(lateral load test, LLT)을 수행함으로써 동결/융해(freezing-thawing)에 따른 해성 점토지반의 강도 및 강성 특성의 변화를 평가하였다. 시험결과, 부피가 약 $2.12m^3$인 원기둥 모양의 동결체를 형성하는데 총 3.5일이 동안 약 11.9 ton의 액화질소가 소요되었다. 동결/융해에 따른 지반의 강도 및 강성 저하는 각각 48.5%, 22.7%로 산정되었다.

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Fig. 1. Application of AGF method for tunneling construction

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Fig. 2. Plan view and test bed layout in Sinan-gun

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Fig. 3. Geologic profile of test bed evaluated by boring investigations

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Fig. 4. Measurement of thermal conductivity through QTM-500

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Fig. 5. Specific configuration of freezing pipe used in AGF field experiment

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Fig. 6. Injection process of liquid nitrogen and arrangement of freezing pipe and temperature hole

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Fig. 7. Temperature change with time at each position by AGF method

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Fig. 8. Frozen soil formation by liquid nitrogen flow through freezing pipe

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Fig. 9. Results of piezo cone penetration test

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Fig. 10. Soil classification based on results of cone penetration test (Robertson, 1990)

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Fig. 11. Components of soil structure (Angin et al., 2016)

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Fig. 12. Grain size distribution curve according to freezing-thawing

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Fig. 13. Results of lateral load test

Table 1. Summary of fundamental physical properties and consolidation parameter of test bed

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Table 2. Summary of laboratory thermal conductivity test

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Table 3. Soil classification according to freezing-thawing by Robertson’s chart (Robertson, 1990)

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Table 4. Fundamental physical properties according to freezing-thawing

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Table 5. Summary of lateral load test according to freezing-thawing

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 고수압 초장대 해저터널 기술 자립을 위한 핵심요소 기술개발

Supported by : 건설교통과학기술진흥원

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