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Analysis and cause of defects in reinforced cement concrete lining on NATM tunnel based on the Precise Inspection for Safety and Diagnosis - Part I

정밀안전진단 결과를 활용한 NATM (철근)의 라이닝 결함 종류별 발생원인 및 분석 - Part I

  • Choo, Jinho (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, Inmo (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University)
  • 추진호 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학과) ;
  • 이인모 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학과)
  • Received : 2018.08.27
  • Accepted : 2018.09.20
  • Published : 2019.01.31

Abstract

Related to the previous paper on the typical crack pattern of tunnel lining with NATM, the characteristic defects in reinforced cement concrete lining of NATM tunnel have analyzed with the precise inspection with safety and diagnosis (PISD) by KISTEC. Depending on the reinforcing materials, steel rebar, steel fiber, and glass fiber have been implemented to reinforcing lining in various NATM tunnel constructions. Reinforcing lining with rebar are prevailed on NATM tunnel to countermeasure the weak geological circumstances, to pursuit the economical tunnel sections, and to resist the risk of tunnel deterioration. By the special act on the safety control of public facilities, the reinforced NATM tunnels for more than 1 km length are scrutinized closely to characterize defects; crack, reinforcement exposure, and lack of lining. Crack resistance by reinforcing is shown in comparison with the normalized crack to the length of tunnel. Typical exposed reinforcements in lining have exemplified with various sections. The lack of lining due to the mal-construction, spalling, fire, earthquake and leaching has been analyzed. The cause and mechanism with the field inspections and other studies has also been verified. Detailed cases are selected by the above concerns as well as the basic information from FMS (Facilities Management System). Likewise the previous paper, this study provides specialized defects in reinforced lining of NATM and it can be widely used in spreading the essential technics and reporting skills. Furthermore, it would be advised and amended for the detail guideline of Safety Diagnosis and PISD (tunnel).

NATM (무근)터널의 라이닝 균열을 분석한 논문과 연계하여 NATM (철근)터널의 결함을 정밀안전진단 사례를 정리하여 결함별 원인을 분석하고자 하였다. NATM (철근)터널에서 콘크리트라이닝은 그 역할에 따라 철근과 같은 보강재를 사용하게 된다. 지반이 불량하거나 안전성 확보를 위한 라이닝 두께의 증가는 굴착단면의 증가와 라이닝 타설 물량의 증가를 유발하나, 철근보강 단면을 설계하여 경제성과 안전성을 함께 도모하게 된다. 시설물안전법에 의한 국내 1종 터널 시설물 중에서 NATM으로 시공된 구간에 철근보강을 실시한 라이닝의 결함 특성을 정리하여 형태별 발생원인을 분석하고자 하였다. 단철근, 복철근과 무근라이닝에 발생되는 균열을 비교하여 철근으로 인한 균열제어 효과를 분석하였다. 다양한 위치에서의 철근노출 사례와 함께 기술하였고 터널에서 고려될 수 있는 라이닝 두께 부족의 원인으로 정밀시공 미흡, 박락, 공용중 라이닝 화재에 의한 폭열, 지진, 용탈의 사례를 기존 연구와 비교하여 분석하였다. 향후 본 연구를 통해 정밀안전진단(터널) 세부지침의 보완 및 개정방향 등을 제시하고자 한다.

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Fig. 1. Possible considerations for the design of the reinforced NATM tunnel

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Fig. 2. Typical installment of reinforced lining in NATM tunnel (road tunnel)

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Fig. 3. Crack occurrence on lining depending on the type of reinforcement (refer to Table 3)

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Fig. 4. Unique crack inspection in NATM (Re) related with rebar array and its survey with NDT

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Fig. 5. Slope of crack occurrence related on the length of tunnel

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Fig. 6. Density of crack occurrence on lining with and w/o reinforcement

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Fig. 7. Characterized cracks related with the duct slab (lining and beneath the ceiling)

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Fig. 8. Characterized cracks on double arch tunnel and typical defects in pillar area

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Fig. 9. Typical Characterized cracks on the reinforce tunnel with/without the invert

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Fig. 10. Schematic display for pumping concrete in reinforced NATM tunnel

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Fig. 11. Typical reinforcement exposures in reinforced NATM tunnel

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Fig. 13. Input parameters of the analysis

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Fig. 13. Input parameters of the analysis (continue)

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Fig. 14. Correlation between the half circle crack and thickness with GPR

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Fig. 15. Spalling at lining in NATM on wall (left) and crown (right)

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Fig. 16. Damaged surface by fire on subway (left) and road (middle), tauern (right)

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Fig. 17. Seismic damage on tunnel lining

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Fig. 18. Calcium leaching on lining (left) and chemical modelling concept (right)

Table 1. Analyzed tunnels in the special act on the safety control of public facilities

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel (continue)

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel (continue)

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel (continue)

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Table 3. Comparison of the effect on reinforcement in crack occurrence

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Fig. 12. Typical installment of reinforced concrete lining in NATM

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