Analysis and cause of defects in reinforced cement concrete lining on NATM tunnel based on the Precise Inspection for Safety and Diagnosis - Part I

정밀안전진단 결과를 활용한 NATM (철근)의 라이닝 결함 종류별 발생원인 및 분석 - Part I

  • Choo, Jinho (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, Inmo (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University)
  • 추진호 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학과) ;
  • 이인모 (고려대학교 건축사회환경공학과)
  • Received : 2018.08.27
  • Accepted : 2018.09.20
  • Published : 2019.01.31


Related to the previous paper on the typical crack pattern of tunnel lining with NATM, the characteristic defects in reinforced cement concrete lining of NATM tunnel have analyzed with the precise inspection with safety and diagnosis (PISD) by KISTEC. Depending on the reinforcing materials, steel rebar, steel fiber, and glass fiber have been implemented to reinforcing lining in various NATM tunnel constructions. Reinforcing lining with rebar are prevailed on NATM tunnel to countermeasure the weak geological circumstances, to pursuit the economical tunnel sections, and to resist the risk of tunnel deterioration. By the special act on the safety control of public facilities, the reinforced NATM tunnels for more than 1 km length are scrutinized closely to characterize defects; crack, reinforcement exposure, and lack of lining. Crack resistance by reinforcing is shown in comparison with the normalized crack to the length of tunnel. Typical exposed reinforcements in lining have exemplified with various sections. The lack of lining due to the mal-construction, spalling, fire, earthquake and leaching has been analyzed. The cause and mechanism with the field inspections and other studies has also been verified. Detailed cases are selected by the above concerns as well as the basic information from FMS (Facilities Management System). Likewise the previous paper, this study provides specialized defects in reinforced lining of NATM and it can be widely used in spreading the essential technics and reporting skills. Furthermore, it would be advised and amended for the detail guideline of Safety Diagnosis and PISD (tunnel).

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Fig. 1. Possible considerations for the design of the reinforced NATM tunnel

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Fig. 2. Typical installment of reinforced lining in NATM tunnel (road tunnel)

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Fig. 3. Crack occurrence on lining depending on the type of reinforcement (refer to Table 3)

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Fig. 4. Unique crack inspection in NATM (Re) related with rebar array and its survey with NDT

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Fig. 5. Slope of crack occurrence related on the length of tunnel

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Fig. 6. Density of crack occurrence on lining with and w/o reinforcement

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Fig. 7. Characterized cracks related with the duct slab (lining and beneath the ceiling)

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Fig. 8. Characterized cracks on double arch tunnel and typical defects in pillar area

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Fig. 9. Typical Characterized cracks on the reinforce tunnel with/without the invert

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Fig. 10. Schematic display for pumping concrete in reinforced NATM tunnel

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Fig. 11. Typical reinforcement exposures in reinforced NATM tunnel

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Fig. 13. Input parameters of the analysis

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Fig. 13. Input parameters of the analysis (continue)

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Fig. 14. Correlation between the half circle crack and thickness with GPR

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Fig. 15. Spalling at lining in NATM on wall (left) and crown (right)

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Fig. 16. Damaged surface by fire on subway (left) and road (middle), tauern (right)

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Fig. 17. Seismic damage on tunnel lining

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Fig. 18. Calcium leaching on lining (left) and chemical modelling concept (right)

Table 1. Analyzed tunnels in the special act on the safety control of public facilities

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel (continue)

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel (continue)

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Table 2. Information of analyzed tunnel (continue)

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Table 3. Comparison of the effect on reinforcement in crack occurrence

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Fig. 12. Typical installment of reinforced concrete lining in NATM

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