DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Egyptian Foreign Policy Orientations and Its Relations with Russia after June 30th Revolution

  • Received : 2019.01.26
  • Accepted : 2019.03.18
  • Published : 2019.03.31

Abstract

Bearing in mind the strategic and pivotal importance of Egypt over the Arab, African, Middle Eastern, Islamic and even global level; this paper aimed to figure out how and why the Egyptian foreign policy has been changed over time; and whether the flourishing of Egyptian-Russian relations represent a shift from West to East; and show how the historical experiences affecting the relations between Egypt and Russia; moreover, explains why Russia supported June $30^{th}$ revolution while it opposed January $25^{th}$ revolution only two years earlier and other Arab Spring revolutions from one side; and why Egypt accepted to further develop its relations with Russia from the other side.

References

  1. Abdel-Nasser, Gamal. 1955. Philosophy of the revolution. state information authority.
  2. Alexander, Anne 2005. Nasser. Haus Publishing Ltd.
  3. Al-Gammal, Shawki & Abdel Razek, Abdallah. 1997. Egypt Modern History, Culture House for publishing and distribution, Cairo.
  4. Alteras, Isaac. 1993. Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations, 1953-1960. University Press of Florida.
  5. Amstutz, Mark R. 1995. International Conflict and Cooperation: An Introduction to World Politics. Madison, Brown & Benchmark Publishing Co.
  6. Awrych, George W. 2000. The Albatross of Decisive Victory: War and Policy Between Egypt and Israel in the 1967 and 1973 Arab-Israeli Wars.. Greenwood Press.
  7. Baker, R. William. 1990. Sadat and After: Struggles for Egypt's Political Soul. Harvard University Press.
  8. Biswas, Asit K. & Tortajada, Cecilia. 2010. Development and Large Dams: A Global Perspective. Water Resource Development Publishing Co, Vol. 17, No.1.
  9. Cook, Steven. 2012. A. the struggle for Egypt, from Nasser to Tahrir square. American university in Cairo, Oxford University Press.
  10. Covarrubias, Jack & Lansford, Tom. 2007. Strategic Interests in the Middle East: Opposition and Support for US Foreign Policy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  11. Davis, H.Thomas. 1994. 40Km into Lebanon: Israel's 1982 Invasion. DIANE Publishing Co, 1995.
  12. Dawisha, Karen. 1979. Soviet Foreign Policy towards Egypt. Springer, Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Co, London.
  13. Fisk, Robert. 2001. Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War. Oxford University Press.
  14. Hemaid, Rania. 2017, Egyptian foreign policy: special reference after The 25th of January Revolution. doctoral thesis, Complutense University of Madrid.
  15. Kissinger, Henry. 2011. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster Publishing Co, New York.
  16. Hopwood, Derek. 1982. Egypt Politics and Society 1945-1981. George Allen & Unwin Publishing Co, London.
  17. Inbar, Efraim. 1995. Regional Security Regimes: Israel and Its Neighbors. SUNY Press.
  18. Katz, Mark. N. 2011. Russia and the Arab Spring, Russian Analytical Digest (RAD). No. 98, 6 July.
  19. Kumaraswamy, P R. 2015. Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, second edition.
  20. Martel, William C. 2006. Victory in War: Foundations of Modern Military Policy. Cambridge University Press.
  21. Petry, Carl F. 1998. The Cambridge History of Egypt. Volume 2, Cambridge University Press.
  22. Quandt, William B. 2010. The Middle East: Ten Years after Camp David. Brookings Institution Press.
  23. Rabinovich, Itamar & Reinharz, Jehuda. 2008. Israel in the Middle East: Documents and Readings on Society, Politics, and Foreign Relations, Pre-1948 to the Present. UPNE Press.
  24. Rogan, Eugene L. & Shlaim, Avi 2007. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. NY, Cambridge University Press.
  25. Saffar, Mohamed. 2011. "Managing the post-revolution period: The Case of Egypt." International Politics, V. 184, April.
  26. Sharaf, Ahmed & others. 2009. Gamal Abdel Nasser- Multiple Angular Vision. Arabic Book House for publishing, Egypt.
  27. Sutherland, Jonathan. Diane Canw ell, 2004. Key Concepts in International Business, Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Co.
  28. Testa, David W. 2014. Government Leaders, Military Rulers and Political Activists. Routledge Publishing Co.
  29. Trenin, Dmitri. 2010. Russia's Policy in the Middle East: Prospects for Consensus and Conflict with the United States. The Century Foundation publishing, New York.
  30. Wiesburd, Arthur. 1997. Use of Force: The Practice of States since World War II. Penn State Press.
  31. Ahram Online. 2014, El-Sisi, Putin stress close ties, near arms deal, http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/108273.aspx. (Last access 25/2/2019).
  32. Egypt Independent, 2018. Egypt, Russia ink comprehensive partnership, co-op agreement. https://ww.egyptindependent.com/egypt-russia-ink-comprehensive-partnership-co-op-agreement/ (Last access 10/1/2019).
  33. Hashim, Noor & Tameh, Amjad; 2015. The Russian position of the Arab revolutions (Libya, Egypt, and Syria models), Arab policies, available at: https://siyasatarabiya.dohainstitute.org/ar/issue012/Documents/Siyassat12-2015_Hisham.pdf (Last access 19/1/2019).
  34. IMF COUNTRY FOCUS, 2018. Egypt: Time to Entrench Growth and Make It More Inclusive, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2018/01/22/na012318egypt time to entrench growth and make it more inclusive(Last access 18/2/2019).
  35. Rosen, Armin. 2012."The U.S. and Egypt Sure Look like Allies, at Least on Military Matters,"The Atlantic, September 14, Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/09/the us and egypt sure-look-likeallies-at-least-on-military-matters/262411/.(Lastaccess 12/11/2018).
  36. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia), 2018. Press release on Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's meeting with Foreign Minister of Egypt Sameh Shoukry see: http://www.mid.ru/en/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/3359224 (Last access 24/1/2019).
  37. The official website of the Egyptian Ministry of Defense (MoD), 2018. Egypt and Russia are conducting joint training (Protectors of Friendship - 3) with the participation of units of Egyptian and Russian paratroopers, see: http://www.mod.gov.eg/ModWebSite/NewsDetails.aspx?id=34597 (Last access 30/1/2019).
  38. The official website of the Egyptian State Information Service (SIS). 2017. Mutual Visits, see: http://www.sis.gov.eg/Story/121782/Mutual-Visits?lang=en-us (Last access 29/11/2018).
  39. The official website of the Egyptian State Information Service (SIS). 2016. Egypt receives missile boat from Russia, see: http://www.sis.gov.eg/Story/104399 (Last access 15/10/2018).
  40. The official website of the Egyptian State Information Service (SIS). 2017. Egyptian-Russian military exercise (Protectors of Friendship 2) kicks off, see: http://www.sis.gov.eg/Story/117608?lang=en-us (Last access 29/11/2018), see also, the Israeli defense website, 2017, Exercise "Protectors of Friendship 2" And the Egyptian-Russian Strategic Relations at:https://www.israeldefense.co.il/en/node/31239 (Last access 23/11/2018).
  41. The official website of the embassy of the Russian federation to the Arab republic of Egypt (The Russian embassy). 2010. HISTORY OF RUSSIAN-EGYPTIAN RELATIONS, see: http://www.egypt.mid.ru/eng/hist/Index.html (Last access 26/12/2018).
  42. The official website of the forum (Army expo). 2018. Patriot Congress and Exhibition Center, see: http://www.rusarmyexpo.com/visiting/get_to/Patriot_Alabino (Last access 31/12/2018).
  43. The official website of the Russian Ministry of Defense. 2015. For the first time in 30 years, the oceanographic research ship Admiral Vladimirsky of the Russian Navy set off for Antarctica, see: http://eng.mil.ru/en/news_page/country/more.htm?id=12062639@egNews (Last access 14/12/2018).