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Visual Classification of Wood Knots Using k-Nearest Neighbor and Convolutional Neural Network

k-Nearest Neighbor와 Convolutional Neural Network에 의한 제재목 표면 옹이 종류의 화상 분류

Kim, Hyunbin;Kim, Mingyu;Park, Yonggun;Yang, Sang-Yun;Chung, Hyunwoo;Kwon, Ohkyung;Yeo, Hwanmyeong

  • Received : 2019.01.08
  • Accepted : 2019.03.07
  • Published : 2019.03.25

Abstract

Various wood defects occur during tree growing or wood processing. Thus, to use wood practically, it is necessary to objectively assess their quality based on the usage requirement by accurately classifying their defects. However, manual visual grading and species classification may result in differences due to subjective decisions; therefore, computer-vision-based image analysis is required for the objective evaluation of wood quality and the speeding up of wood production. In this study, the SIFT+k-NN and CNN models were used to implement a model that automatically classifies knots and analyze its accuracy. Toward this end, a total of 1,172 knot images in various shapes from five domestic conifers were used for learning and validation. For the SIFT+k-NN model, SIFT technology was used to extract properties from the knot images and k-NN was used for the classification, resulting in the classification with an accuracy of up to 60.53% when k-index was 17. The CNN model comprised 8 convolution layers and 3 hidden layers, and its maximum accuracy was 88.09% after 1205 epoch, which was higher than that of the SIFT+k-NN model. Moreover, if there is a large difference in the number of images by knot types, the SIFT+k-NN tended to show a learning biased toward the knot type with a higher number of images, whereas the CNN model did not show a drastic bias regardless of the difference in the number of images. Therefore, the CNN model showed better performance in knot classification. It is determined that the wood knot classification by the CNN model will show a sufficient accuracy in its practical applicability.

Keywords

visual classification;knot classification;k-nearest neighbor;convolution neural network;deep learning;species identification;wood classification

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea, Korea Forestry Promotion Institute