Behavioral analysis of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) released to the entrance of Jinhae Bay, Korea

진해만 입구에 방류한 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 행동 분석

  • SHIN, Hyeon-Ok (Division of Marine Production System Management, Pukyong National University) ;
  • HEO, Gyeom (Department of Fisheries Physics, Graduate School, Pukyong National University) ;
  • HEO, Min-A (Department of Fisheries Physics, Graduate School, Pukyong National University) ;
  • KANG, Kyoungmi (KOICA-PKNU International Graduate Program of Fisheries Science, Pukyong National University)
  • 신현옥 (부경대학교 해양생산시스템관리학부) ;
  • 허겸 (부경대학교 대학원 수산물리학과) ;
  • 허민아 (부경대학교 대학원 수산물리학과) ;
  • 강경미 (부경대학교 KOICA-PKNU국제수산과학협동과정)
  • Received : 2019.02.07
  • Accepted : 2019.02.25
  • Published : 2019.02.28


In order to investigate the behavioral characteristics of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) released at the entrance of Jinhae Bay, Korea, the direction and range of movement, swimming speed of the fish were measured with an acoustic telemetry techniques in winter, 2015. Three wild Pacific codes WC1 to WC3 (total length 66.0, 75.0, 76.0 cm; body weight 2.84, 2.79, 3.47 kg, respectively) were tagged with the acoustic transmitter. WC1 tagged with an acoustic transmitter internally by surgical method, WC2 and WC3, externally with the acoustic data logger and a micro data logger for recording audible sound waves including timer release unit. The movement routes of the tagged fish were measured more than five hours using VR100 receiver and a directional hydrophone. The directionality of the fish movement was tested by Rayleigh's z-Test, the statistical analysis, and a statistical program SPSS. Three tagged fishes were individually released on the sea surface around the entrance to the Jinhae Bay on 10 to 24 January 2015. WC1 moved about 13.32 km with average swimming speed of 0.63 m/s for six hours. The average swimming depth and water depth of the seabed on the route of WC1 were 7.2 and 32.9 m, respectively. The movement range of WC2 and WC3 were 7.95 and 11.06 km, approximately, with average swimming speed of 0.44 and 0.58 m/s for 5.1 and 5.3 hours, respectively. The average swimming depth of WC2 and WC3 were 18.7 and 5.0 m, and the water depth on the route, 34.4 and 29.8 m, respectively. Three fishes WC1 to WC3 were shown significant directionality in the movement (p < 0.05). Movement mean angles of WC1 to WC3 were 77.7, 76.3 and $88.1^{\circ}$, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the movement direction of fish (WC1 and WC2) and the tidal currents during the experimental period (p >= 0.05). Consequently, three tagged fishes were commonly moved toward outside of the entrance and headed for eastward of the Korean Peninsula, approximately, after release. It may estimate positively that the tidal current speed may affect to the swimming speed of the Pacific cod during the spring tide than the neap tide.


Pacific cod;Behavior;Acoustic telemetry;Movement;Swimming speed


Supported by : 부경대학교


  1. Bradbury C, Green JM and Bruce-Lockhart M. 1995. Home ranges of female cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus (Labridae), as determined by ultrasonic telemetry. Can J Zool 73, 1268-1279.
  2. Brown JA, Pepin P, Methven DA and Somerton DC. 1989. The feeding, growth, and behaviour of juvenile cod, Gadus morhua L., in cold environments. J Fish Biol 35, 373-380.
  3. Chyung MK. 1977. The fishes of Korea. Iljisa, Seoul, Korea, 257-259.
  4. Cote D, Ollerhead LMN, Gregory RS, Scruton DA and McKinley RS. 2002. Activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Buckley Cove, Newfoundland. Hydrobiologia 483, 121-127. (DOI: 10.1023/A:1021367225993)
  5. Crossin GT, Heupei MR, Holibrook CM, Hussey NE, Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Nguyen VM, Raby GD and Cooke SJ. 2017. Acoustic telemetry and fisheries management. Ecological Applications 27, 1031-1049. (DOI: 10.1002/eap.1533)
  6. Doopedia. 2016., Accessed 31 Jan 2019.
  7. Heo G, Kim MS and Shin HO. 2016a A study for behavior analysis of rockfish (Sebastes inermis) corresponding to the LED light by image analysis. J Korean Soc Fish Technol 52, 96-102. (DOI: 10.3796/KSFT.2016.52.2.096)
  8. Heo G, Kim MS and Shin HO. 2016b. Behavior analysis of rockfish (Sebastes inermis) depending on the temperature and LED lights. J Korean Soc Fish Technol 52, 103-110. (DOI: 10.3796/KSFT.2016.52.3.103)
  9. Heo G, Kim MS and Shin HO. 2017. Effect of water temperature and LED lights on the behavior of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). J Korean Soc Fish Technol 53, 240-245. (DOI: 10.3796/KSFT.2017.53.3.240)
  10. Lee JH, Kim JN, Lee JB, Choi JH, Moon SY, Park J and Kim DN. 2015. Movement of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in the Korean Southeast Sea, ascertained through pop-up archival tags and conventional tags. J Korean Soc Fish Technol 51, 624-629. (DOI: 10.3796/KSFT.2015.51.4.624)
  11. Linehan JE, Gregory RS and Schneider DC. 2001. Predation risk of age-0 cod (Gadus) relative to depth and substrate in coastal waters. J exp mar Biol Ecol 263, 25-44. (DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(01)00287-8)
  12. Lokkeborg S. 1998. Feeding behaviour of cod, Gadus morhua: activity rhythm and chemically mediated food search. Anim Behav 56, 371-378. (DOI: 10.1006/anbe.1998.0772)
  13. Lokkeborg S and Ferno A. 1999. Diel activity pattern and food search behavior in cod, Gadus morhua. Envir Biol Fishes 54, 345-353. (DOI: 10.1023/A:1007504712163)
  14. Shin HO, Heo G and Heo MA. 2015. The effect of LED light wavelength on the growth of fingerling Sebastes inermis. J Korean Soc Fish Technol 51, 179-187. (DOI: 10.3796/KSFT.2015.51.2.179)
  15. Shin HO, Lee DJ and Shin HI. 2003. Behavior of Israeli carp Cyprinus carpio traced by long baseline telemetry techniques during dynamite explosion work. Fish Sci 69, 27-36. (DOI: 10.1046/j.1444-2906.2003.00584.x)
  16. Sogard SM and Olla BL. 1998. Contrasting behavioural responses to cold temperatures by two marine fish species during their pelagic juvenile interval. Envir Biol Fishes 53, 405-412. (DOI: 10.1023/A:1007485417486)
  17. Staaks G, Kirschbaum F and Williot P. 1999. Experimental studies on thermal behaviour and diurnal activity rhythms of juvenile European sturgeons (Acipenser sturio). J appl Ichthyol 15, 243-247.
  18. Winger PD, McCallum BR, Walsh SJ and Brown JA. 2002. Taking the bait: in situ voluntary ingestion of acoustic transmitters by Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Hydrobiologia 483, 287-292. (DOI: 10.1023/A:1021320805037)
  19. Winger PW, He P and Walsh SJ. 2000. Factors affecting the swimming endurance and catchability of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can J Fish aquat Sci 57, 1200-1207.
  20. Zar JH. 1999. Biostatistical analysis, 4th edtion. Prentice Hall International, London, UK. 616-624.