Fig. 1. Fabrication process of a multilayer actuator and a photograph of device. (a) Bottom electrode deposition on flexible PET substrate, (b) tape masking of electrode for solution processing, (c) spin coating of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), (d) detachment of tape mask, (e) internal electrode deposition and electrode connection, (f) tape masking of electrode for solution processing, (g) spin coating of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), (h) detachment of tape mask, (i) top electrode deposition and electrode connection, and (j) two layered piezoelectric vibrational actuator.
Fig. 3. PFM amplitude and phase measurement. (a) PFM amplitude and phase as a function of ac drive frequency to the PFM tip, (b) pulse voltage input signal to the sample, and (c) coresponding PFM amplitude, induced by the input voltage in (b), as a function of time at a fixed point.
Fig. 4. Laser vibrometer measurement. Photographs of (a) laser vibrometer setup and (b) 2 layer piezoelectric vibrational device. Plots of (c) frequency scan data of velocity of 2 layer actuator and (d) vibrational velocity of 2 layer actuator at resonance frequency of 1,300 Hz.
Fig. 2. (a) Cross-sectional SEM image and (b) x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) single layer.