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Verification of Genetic Process for the High-purity Limestone in Daegi Formation by Oxygen-carbon Stable Isotope Characteristics

산소-탄소 안정동위원소특성을 이용한 대기층 고품위 석회석의 생성기작 해석

  • Kim, Chang Seong (Department of Earth and Environmental Sceinces, Korea University) ;
  • Choi, Seon-Gyu (Department of Earth and Environmental Sceinces, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Gyu-Bo (Department of Earth and Environmental Sceinces, Korea University) ;
  • Kang, Jeonggeuk (Department of Earth and Environmental Sceinces, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Tae (School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University) ;
  • Lee, Jonghyun (Department of Earth and Environmental Sceinces, Korea University) ;
  • Jang, Jaeho (School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • 김창성 (고려대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 최선규 (고려대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 김규보 (고려대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 강정극 (고려대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 김상태 (맥매스터대학교 지리지구과학부) ;
  • 이종현 (고려대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 장재호 (서울대학교 지구환경과학부)
  • Received : 2018.10.01
  • Accepted : 2019.01.21
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

Two assertions about the process the formation of the high-purity limestone in the Taebaeksan Basin, categorized into syngenetic and epigenetic origin, are verified on the basis of its oxygen-carbon stable isotopic characteristics. The carbonate rocks sampled from the selective six high-purity limestone mines and several outcrops in the Daegi formation are featured by various colors such as the gray, light gray and dark gray. They show a wide range of oxygen stable isotope ratios (4.5 ~ 21.6 ‰), but a narrow range of carbon stable isotope ratios (-1.1 ~ 0.8 ‰, except for vein calcite), which means that they had not experienced strong hydrothermal alteration. In addition, there is no difference in the range of the oxygen stable isotope ratios by mine and color, and it is similar to the range from surrounding outcrop samples. These results indicate that the effect of the hydrothermal alteration were negligible in the generation of high-purity limestone in deposit scale. Whereas, the carbonate rocks can be divided texturally into two groups on the basis of an oxygen isotope ratio; the massive-textured or well-layered samples (>15 ‰), and the layer-disturbed (or layer-destructed) and showing over two colors in one sample (<15 ‰). In the multi-colored samples, the bright parts are characterized by the very low oxygen stable isotope ratios, compared to the dark parts, implying the increase in brightness of the carbonate rocks could be induced by the interaction between hydrothermal fluid and rock. However, these can be applied in a small scale such as one sample and are not suitable for interpretation of the generation of high-purity limestone as a deposit scale. In particular, the high oxygen isotope ratios from the recrystallized white limestone suggest that hydrothermal fluids are also rarely involved during recrystallization process. In addition, the occurrences of the high-purity limestone orebody strongly support the high-purity limestone in the area are syngenetic rather than epigenetic; the high-purity limestone layers in the area show continuous and almost horizontal shapes, and is intercalated between dolomite layers. Consequently, the overall reinterpretation based on the sequential stratigraphy over the Taebaeksan basin would play an important role to find additional reserves of the high-purity limestone.

Keywords

high-purity limestone;Daegi Formation;Taebaeksan Basin;oxygen-carbon stable isotope;carbonate factory

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Fig. 1. Geologic map of the Taebaeksan Basin with shown representative high-purity limestone and metal deposits (modified from Koh et al., 2001).

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Fig. 2. Slab photographs of the representative carbonate rocks which are indicated the color group and the O-C stable isotopic values. a) dark grey, b) grey, c) light grey, d) white, and e) recrystallized.

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Fig. 3. Slab photographs of the representative carbonate rocks showing the different colors in each sample which are indicated the analysed spots (black or white dots) and O-C stable isotopic values.

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Fig. 4. Distribution of oxygen-carbon stable isotope ratios of the carbonates in the Daegi Formation from some highpurity limestone deposits (a) and by color (b). It is found that the large variation of the oxygen isotopic values but that the small of the carbon except one sample, calcite vein. There is no difference in the oxygen isotpoic ratios by color. Range of sedimentary and magmatic carbonates are from James and Jones (2016) and Tayler et al. (1967). Magmatic water box: δ13CPDB = -8.0 ~ -5.0 ‰; δ18OSMOW = 5.5 ~ 10.0 ‰.

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Fig. 5. XRD results of the white (a) and dark grey (b)carbonate rocks from the Daegi Formation. cal = calcite,dol = dolomite.

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Fig. 6. Distribution of oxygen-carbon stable isotope ratios of the carbonates in the Daegi Formation from some metal deposits.

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Fig. 7. Distribution of oxygen-carbon stable isotope ratios of the carbonates in the Daegi Formation from several outcrops.

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Fig. 8. Microphotographs of the carbonate rocks from the high-purity limestone deposits by color. a) white, b) light grey, c)grey, and d) dark grey. The carbonate rocks of white and light grey color consist only carbonate mineral (a, b) but, the grey and dark grey samples contain some pelitic material (c, d).

Table 2. Ranges of oxygen-carbon stable isotope ratio by color at some high-purity limestone deposits (included the data from the GMI mine)

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Table 3. Values of oxygen-carbon stable isotope ratio of the outcrops in the Daegi Formation

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Table 4. Characteristics of the carbonate rocks grouped by oxygen stable isotopic values

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Table 1. Values of oxygen-carbon stable isotope ratio of the Daegi Formation at some high-purity limestone deposits

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 석회석 광산 통합개발을 위한 3D 지질 모델 기반 원가절감 10% 이상의 채광기술 및 제품 규격 오차 5% 이내의 선광기술 개발

Supported by : 한국에너지기술평가원

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