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Consideration for Historical Application of Augen Gneiss and Petrographic Characteristics for Rock Properties of Donghachong Tomb from Royal Tombs of Neungsanri in Buyeo, Korea

부여 능산리고분군 동하총 석재의 암석기재적 특성과 안구상편마암의 역사적 활용성 고찰

  • Park, Jun Hyoung (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Lee, Gyu Hye (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Lee, Chan Hee (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University)
  • 박준형 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과) ;
  • 이규혜 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과) ;
  • 이찬희 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과)
  • Received : 2019.01.15
  • Accepted : 2019.02.14
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

The Donghachong tomb from Royal Tombs at Neungsanri is composed of 15 sides including the floor, and the most highly proportion of rock, two-mica granite, are used on the 7 sides (46.6%). Also, augen gneiss consist with another 3 sides (20.0%), and each of the remaining 3 sides (6.7%) are made up of granodiorite, gneissous granite and leucocratic granite, all of which were used to comprise the tabural stone. Meanwhile, the two floors of the burial chamber and the front chamber, are made up of brick-shaped amphibole schist (13.3%). These rocks are occurred in the Buyeo area and their provenance sites are located at the side of Guemgang river. The Memorial Stone for Liu Renyuen in Tang China is a typical augen gneiss showing distinct schistosity and augen texture. This rock has the same petrographic characteristics with the rocks used to build the Donghachong tomb, Sanjikri dolmens and Setapri pagoda in Buyeo. This augen gneiss is distributed from the Jeungsanri in Buyeo to Dukjiri in Gongju as a large scaled rock body, and where currently are the quarries to produce stone aggregates, garden and landscape rocks. Thus, it is highly probable that the site around Buyeo was the source area of augen gneisses since the Bronze Age. However, while augen gneiss is easier to form into shapes it should have disadvantages when it comes to painting on the tomb wall because of their petrographic characteristics of low strength and dark color. Therefore, it is very intriguing to investigate which transportation method the people of Baekje chose with consideration of the distance and terrain, efficiency and convenience.

Keywords

Donghachong tomb;tabular stone;augen gneiss;source area;transportation system

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Fig. 1. Geological map around the Royal Tombs in Neungsanri and Buyeo area.

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Fig. 2. The present state of Donghachong tomb from Royal Tombs in Neungsanri. (A) Southern entrance of the tomb. (B)Inside stones of tumulus painted four side guardians. (C) Lotus and cloud patterns painted in inside of the roof stone.

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Fig. 3. Occurrences and present state of the Monument for Liu Renyuan of Tang China. (A) The Monument for Liu Renyuan discovered from Busosan mountain. (B) Rock fragments carving the Chinese letter of the Monument for Liu Renyuan. (C) The present state of the Monument for Liu Renyuan conserved in Buyeo National Museum. (A and B referred from National Museum of Korea, 2010).

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Fig. 4. Lithological maps for rock properties in four side of Donghachong tomb from Royal Tombs in Neungsanri.

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Fig. 5. Lithological and petrographic images of two-mica granite (A, D), augen gneiss (B, E) and amphibole schist (C, F),respectively.

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Fig. 6. Lithological and petrographic images of granodiorite (A, D), gneissous granite (B, E) and leucocratic granite (C, F),respectively.

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Fig. 7. Microphotographs showing the two-mica granite (A), augen gneiss (B) and amphibole schist (C), respectively. Am;amphibole, Bt; biotite, Ch; chlorite, Pl; plagioclase, Q; quartz.

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Fig. 8. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of two-micagranite (A) and amphibole schist (B), respectively. M;mica group minerals, Pl; plagioclase, Q; quartz, K; alkali feldspar, Ch; chlorite, Am; amphibole.

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Fig. 9. Diagrams showing the magnetic susceptibilities of rock properties from the Donghachong tomb and presumed source rocks near the Buyeo area.

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Fig. 10. Schematic distributions of various rocks along the Geumgang river in Buyeo area (modified after Lee et al., 2015).

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Fig. 11. Field occurrences of porphyritic granodiorite (A), and ancient cutting traces (B and C) from Okyeobong in Ganggyeong (modified after Lee et al., 2007).

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Fig. 12. Monument for Liu Renyuan of Tang China (A), typical texture of augen in gneiss (B) and stereoscopic view on augen gneiss of the monument (C).

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Fig. 13. Field occurrences of Sangikri dolmens (A), ancient cutting traces on rocks of dolmen surface ( B) and typical texture of augen in gneiss (C) of the dolmens.

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Fig. 14. Field occurrences of Setapri stone pagoda (A), augen gneiss used in basement rocks (B) and typical texture of augen in gneiss (C) of rock property.

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Fig. 15. Quarry showing augen gneiss for garden, landscape and aggregate stones from Deokjiri of Tancheon in Gongju (A,B) and typical texture of augen in gneiss (C) from the quarry.

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Fig. 16. Microphotographs showing the augen gneiss (A to C) and X-ray powder diffraction patterns of augen gneiss (D) of the Deokjiri quarry. Bt; biotite, M; mica group minerals, Pl; plagioclase, Q; quartz, K; alkali feldspar.

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Fig. 17. Diagrams showing the magnetic susceptibilities of augen gneiss from various cultural properties near the Buyeo and presumed source rocks of the augen gneiss in the Deokjiri quarry.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 국립부여박물관

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