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Effect of Cyclic Injection on Migration and Trapping of Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

공극 구조 내 교차 주입이 비혼성 유체의 포획 및 거동에 미치는 영향

  • Ahn, Hyejin (Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Seon-ok (Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Minhee (Department of Earth Environmental Sciences, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Wang, Sookyun (Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University)
  • 안혜진 (부경대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • 김선옥 (부경대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • 이민희 (부경대학교 지구환경과학과) ;
  • 왕수균 (부경대학교 에너지자원공학과)
  • Received : 2019.01.28
  • Accepted : 2019.02.18
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

In geological $CO_2$ sequestration, the behavior of $CO_2$ within a reservoir can be characterized as two-phase flow in a porous media. For two phase flow, these processes include drainage, when a wetting fluid is displaced by a non-wetting fluid and imbibition, when a non-wetting fluid is displaced by a wetting fluid. In $CO_2$ sequestration, an understanding of drainage and imbibition processes and the resulting NW phase residual trapping are of critical importance to evaluate the impacts and efficiencies of these displacement process. This study aimed to observe migration and residual trapping of immiscible fluids in porous media via cyclic injection of drainage-imbibition. For this purpose, cyclic injection experiments by applying n-hexane and deionized water used as proxy fluid of $scCO_2$ and pore water were conducted in the two dimensional micromodel. The images from experiment were used to estimate the saturation and observed distribution of n-hexane and deionized water over the course drainage-imbibition cycles. Experimental results showed that n-hexane and deionized water are trapped by wettability, capillarity, dead end zone, entrapment and bypassing during $1^{st}$ drainage-imbibition cycle. Also, as cyclic injection proceeds, the flow path is simplified around the main flow path in the micromodel, and the saturation of injection fluid converges to remain constant. Experimental observation results can be used to predict the migration and distribution of $CO_2$ and pore water by reservoir environmental conditions and drainage-imbibition cycles.

Keywords

geological $CO_2$ sequestration;immiscible displacement;residual trapping;micromodel;main flow path

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Fig. 1. Micromodel with glass and pore space (black:glass, sky blue: pore space).

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Fig. 2. Schematic diagram for the cyclic injection experimental set-up.

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Fig. 3. Image processing procedure (G: glass, W: deionized water, H: n-hexane); (a) a real image before nhexane injection (All of pore was initially saturated with water), (b) a real image after n-hexane injection (A portion of deionized water was trapped by n-hexane), (c) a gray image transformed from the real image (b), (d) the binary image transformed from the real image (a), (e) a binary image of the distribution of deionized water (white) in pore network with n-hexane (black) transformed from the gray image (c), (f) a binary image of the distribution of nhexane (white) in pore network with deionized water (black), (g) a image colored sky blue from the binary image (e), (h) a image colored red and purple from the binary image (f), (j) a finalized multicolor image of distribution for flowing n-hexane (red), residual n-hexane (purple), deionized water (sky blue) and glass (black).

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Fig. 4. Sequential images over the course of five drainage-imbibition cycles. (a, c, e, g and i) After the completion of the drainage (n-hexane injection), (b, d, f, h and j) after the completion of imbibition (deionized water injection) (Experimental conditions: 0.1 MPa, 25oC and 10 μL/min). The different colors represent flowing n-hexane (red), residual n-hexane (purple), flowing deionized water (blue) and residual deionized water (sky blue).

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Fig. 5. Enlarged images after the completion of the 1st Drainage. Residual trapping by (a) wettability, (b) capillarity, (c) dead end zone, (d) entrapment and (e) bypassing. The different colors represent flowing n-hexane (red) and residual deionized water (sky blue).

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Fig. 6. Enlarged images after the completion of the 1st Imbibition. Residual trapping by (a) wettability, (b) capillarity, (c) dead end zone, (d) entrapment and (e) bypassing. The different colors represent residual n-hexane (purple), flowing deionized water (blue) and residual deionized water (sky blue).

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Fig. 7. Variation in saturation of n-hexane and deionized water over the course of five Drainage-Imbibition cycles (D: Drainage (n-hexane injection), I: Imbibition (deionized water injection)) (Experimental conditions: 0.1 MPa, 25oC and 10 μL/min).

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Fig. 8. Enlarged images of the yellow square in Fig. 4 (g, h, i and j). The different colors represent residual n-hexane (purple)and residual deionized water (sky blue).

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Fig. 9. The number of blobs and saturation of n-hexane over the course of five Drainage-Imbibition cycles. Each data point denotes the average of five replicate experiments (Experimental conditions: 0.1 MPa, 25oC and 10 μL/min).

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Fig. 10. Average blob area of n-hexane after the completion of the Drainage-Imbibition cycles. Each data point denotes the average of five replicate experiments.

Table 1. Fluid properties and interfacial tension of n-hexane and deionized water at ambient pressure

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : 부경대학교

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