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Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of White, Reddish Brown and Mixed Precipitates Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwondo, South Korea

강원도 오십천 수계에 분포하는 백색침전물, 적갈색침전물 및 혼합침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성의 비교분석

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa (Department of Astronomy, Space Science, & Geology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Yu, Jaehyung (Department of Geology and Earth Environmental Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Shin, Ji Hye (Department of Astronomy, Space Science, & Geology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Koh, Sang-Mo (Convergence Research Center for Development of Mineral Resources, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources)
  • 임정화 (충남대학교 우주.지질학과) ;
  • 유재형 (충남대학교 지질환경과학과) ;
  • 신지혜 (충남대학교 우주.지질학과) ;
  • 고상모 (한국지질자원연구원 DMR융합연구단)
  • Received : 2018.12.10
  • Accepted : 2018.12.26
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal contamination, and mineral composition of white, reddish brown and mixed precipitates occurring at the Osip stream drainage, Gangwondo. Furthermore, spectral characteristics of the precipitates associated with heavy metal contamination and mineral composition was investigated based on spectroscopic analysis. The pH range of the precipitates was 4.43-6.91 for white precipitates, 7.74-7.94 for reddish brown precipitates, and 7.59-7.9 for the mixed precipitates, respectively. XRF analysis revealed that these precipitates were contaminated with Ni, Cu, Zn, and As. The white precipitates showed high Al concentration compared to reddish brown precipitates as much as 3.3 times, and the reddish brown precipitates showed high Fe concentration compared to white precipitates as much as 15 times. XRD analysis identified that the mineral composition of the white participates was aluminocoquimbite, gibbsite, quartz, saponite, and illite, and that of reddish brown precipitates was aluminum isopropoxide, kaolinite, goethite, dolomite, pyrophyllite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, pyrope. The mineral composition of the mixed precipitates was quartz, albite, and calcite. The spectral characteristics of the precipitates was manifested by gibbsite, saponite, illite for white precipitates, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite for reddish brown precipitates, and albite for the mixed precipitates, respectively. The spectral reflectance of the precipitates decreased with increase in heavy metal contamination, and absorption depth of the precipitates indicated that the heavy metal ions were adsorbed to saponite and illite for white precipitates, and goethite and magnetite for reddish brown precipitates.

Keywords

white precipitates;reddish brown precipitates;mixed precipitates;heavy metal contamination;spectral characteristics

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Fig. 1. Location map of the study area.

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Fig. 2. Flow chart of methods carried out for this study.

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Fig. 3. Field photographs of white precipitates(a), reddish brown precipitates(b), the confluence of white precipitate and reddish brown precipitate(c) and mixed precipitates(d) in this study area.

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Fig. 4. X-ray diffraction pattern of white precipitates(a)-(b), mixed precipitate(c) and reddish brown precipitates(d)-(f)collected from the bottom of the stream.

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Fig. 5. The visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance spectra and hull-quotient spectra of white,reddish brown and mixed precipitates.

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Fig. 6. The average visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance spectrum of white precipitates and reference spectra of illite, saponite and gibbsite from standard spectral library data(Clark et al., 2007; Baldridge et al., 2009).

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Fig. 7. The average visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance spectrum of reddish brown precipitates and reference spectra of kaolinite, pyrophyllite and goethite from standard spectral library data(Clark et al.,2007; Baldridge et al., 2009).

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Fig. 8. The average visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance spectrum of mixed precipitates and reference spectra of albite from standard spectral library data(Clark et al., 2007; Baldridge et al., 2009).

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Fig. 9. The average visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance and hull-quotient spectra of white precipitate groups.

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Fig. 10. The average visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance and hull-quotient spectra of reddish brown precipitate groups.

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Fig. 11. The average visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared(VNIR-SWIR) reflectance and hull-quotient spectra of mixed precipitate groups.

Table 1. The pH values of stream water in which white precipitates are distributed

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Table 2. The pH values of stream water in which reddish brown precipitates(left) and mixed precipitates(right) are distributed

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Table 3. Sediment pollution evaluation standard for Ni, Cu, Zn and As established by NIER(2015) (unit: ppm)

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Table 4. Minimum, median, maximum and mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn and As(unit: ppm) for each precipitate

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Table 5. Minimum, median, maximum and mean concentrations of Ni, Cu and Zn(unit: ppm), and calculated pollution index(PI) for each white precipitate group

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Table 6. Minimum, median, maximum and mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn and As (unit: ppm), and calculated pollution index(PI) for each reddish brown precipitate group

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Table 7. Minimum, median, maximum and mean concentrations of Ni, Cu and Zn (unit: ppm), and calculated pollutionindex (PI) for each mixed precipitate group

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Table 8. Average concentration of stream sediment for Al, Mn and Fe and minimum, median, maximum and mean concentrations for each precipitate(unit: %)

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : 국가과학기술연구회

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