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INTENSIVE MONITORING SURVEY OF NEARBY GALAXIES (IMSNG)

  • Im, Myungshin (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Choi, Changsu (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Hwang, Sungyong (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lim, Gu (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Joonho (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Sophia (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Paek, Gregory S.H. (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Yun (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Yoon, Sung-Chul (Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jung, Hyunjin (Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Sung, Hyun-Il (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • Jeon, Yeong-beom (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • Ehgamberdiev, Shuhrat (Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Burhonov, Otabek (Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Milzaqulov, Davron (Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Parmonov, Omon (Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Lee, Sang Gak (Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kang, Wonseok (National Youth Space Center) ;
  • Kim, Taewoo (National Youth Space Center) ;
  • Kwon, Sun-gill (National Youth Space Center) ;
  • Pak, Soojong (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Ji, Tae-Geun (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Hye-In (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Park, Woojin (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Ahn, Hojae (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Byeon, Seoyeon (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Han, Jimin (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Gibson, Coyne (McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin) ;
  • Wheeler, J. Craig (McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin) ;
  • Kuehne, John (McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin) ;
  • Johns-Krull, Chris (Department of Physics & Astronomy, Rice University) ;
  • Marshall, Jennifer (Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University) ;
  • Hyun, Minhee (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Seong-Kook J. (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Yongjung (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Yoon, Yongmin (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Paek, Insu (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Shin, Suhyun (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Taak, Yoon Chan (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kang, Juhyung (Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Choi, Seoyeon (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jeong, Mankeun (Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jung, Moo-Keon (Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Hwara (Department of Earth Science Education, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Jisu (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Lee, Dayae (Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University) ;
  • Park, Bomi (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University) ;
  • Park, Keunwoo (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University) ;
  • O, Seong A (Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2018.11.30
  • Accepted : 2019.01.10
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

Intensive Monitoring Survey of Nearby Galaxies (IMSNG) is a high cadence observation program monitoring nearby galaxies with high probabilities of hosting supernovae (SNe). IMSNG aims to constrain the SN explosion mechanism by inferring sizes of SN progenitor systems through the detection of the shock-heated emission that lasts less than a few days after the SN explosion. To catch the signal, IMSNG utilizes a network of 0.5-m to 1-m class telescopes around the world and monitors the images of 60 nearby galaxies at distances D < 50 Mpc to a cadence as short as a few hours. The target galaxies are bright in near-ultraviolet (NUV) with $M_{NUV}$ < -18.4 AB mag and have high probabilities of hosting SNe ($0.06SN\;yr^{-1}$ per galaxy). With this strategy, we expect to detect the early light curves of 3.4 SNe per year to a depth of R ~ 19.5 mag, enabling us to detect the shock-heated emission from a progenitor star with a radius as small as $0.1R_{\odot}$. The accumulated data will be also useful for studying faint features around the target galaxies and other science projects. So far, 18 SNe have occurred in our target fields (16 in IMSNG galaxies) over 5 years, confirming our SN rate estimate of $0.06SN\;yr^{-1}$ per galaxy.

Keywords

surveys;techniques: photometric;supernovae: general

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_f0001.tif 이미지

Figure 1. Model predictions of the shock-heated emission light curves at 50 Mpc, overlayed on the best-fit early light curve of SN 2015F (Im et al. 2015b) that is fitted to the data after ~ 1 day after the explosion and shifted to 50 Mpc (the solid black line). The best-fit early light curve of SN 2015F represents a typical SN Ia light curve due to radioactive decay. The dashed lines are for Rabinak & Waxman (2011) for a CC SN, and the dotted lines are for Kasen (2010) due to the shock-heated emission from a companion star in SN Ia. The shock-heated emission from SN Ia is expected to be anisotropic, and can be fainter by 2.5 mag. The case plotted here is for the most optimal viewing angle.

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_f0002.tif 이미지

Figure 2. MNUV (AB) versus distance (Mpc) of IMSNG galaxies (red squares), plotted over galaxies from Bai et al. (2015) (gray circles). The area within the black dashed line denotes the region where we selected IMSNG galaxies.

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Figure 3. The locations of the telescopes used by IMSNG. The background world map is taken from http://trip8.co.

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_f0004.tif 이미지

Figure 4. The occurrence of SNe per year per galaxy (SN rate) as a function of FUV (blue) or NUV (red) magnitudes for galaxies within 50 Mpc. The rates were examined over the period of 2006-2016.

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_f0005.tif 이미지

Figure 5. The emergence of SN 2017gax (SN Ib/Ic) in NGC 1672 which is caught by SNUCAM-II on LSGT (Im et al. 2015b; Choi & Im 2017), one of the IMSNG telescopes (Im et al. 2017a). Each image shows a stack of three 180 sec exposure frames in r-band, and the green circle with a ra-dius of 20:000 indicates the location of the SN. This example demonstrates that the high cadence IMSNG observation can catch the early optical light curves of SNe. The UT date of the observation is also indicated in each image.

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_f0006.png 이미지

Figure 6. (Left) A single exposure (60 seconds) R-band image near NGC 895 galaxy. A part of NGC 895 is visible on the left. (Right) A stacked R-band image (2.37 hours) of the same eld. The data taken from 2013 to 2016 were used. A low SB satellite galaxy candidate is marked as a large, thick arrow. Merging features are visible in the deep image for a galaxy on the top and noted with small arrows.

Table 1 IMSNG target galaxies

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_t0001.tif 이미지

Table 2 The current list of telescopes in the IMSNG network

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Table 3 SNe and other transients in IMSNG galaxies (2014-2018)

CMHHBA_2019_v52n1_11_t0003.tif 이미지

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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