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Research Trend on Conversion Reaction Anodes for Sodium-ion Batteries

나트륨이차전지용 전환반응 음극 소재 기술 동향

  • 김수지 (숙명여자대학교화공생명공학부) ;
  • 김유진 (숙명여자대학교화공생명공학부) ;
  • 류원희 (숙명여자대학교화공생명공학부)
  • Received : 2019.02.08
  • Accepted : 2019.02.13
  • Published : 2019.02.28

Abstract

Development of low cost rechargeable batteries has been considered as a significant task for future large-scale energy storage units (i.e. electric vehicles, smart grids). Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been recognized as a promising alternative to replace conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their abundancy and economic benign. Nevertheless, Na ions have larger ionic radius than that of Li ions, resulting in sluggish transport of Na ions in electrodes for cell operation. There have been efforts to seek suitable anode materials for the past years operated based on three different kinds of reaction mechanism (intercalation, alloy reaction, and conversion reaction). In this review, we introduce a class of conversion reaction anode materials for Na-ion batteries, which have been reported.

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Fig. 3. 나트륨이온전지 음극 소재의 반응 메커니즘에 따른 분류

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Fig. 12. Heterostructure를 보이는 Sb2S3/MoS2 전극의 SEM이미지, HR-TEM 이미지, TEM 이미지와 원소 분포도.

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Fig. 1. (a) 전기 자동차와 스마트그리드를 이용한 중대형 에너지 장치의 응용 (b) 리튬 원료의 매장량 분포.

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Fig. 2. (a) 리튬과 나트륨 원료의 가격, 용량, 표준환원전위(SHE), 이온 반지름, 녹는점, 지각 내 매장량, 해수 내 매장량 비교12 (b) 리튬이온과 나트륨이온의 삽입과 탈리 반응 비교.

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Fig. 4 (a) 층간 삽입반응 (Intercalation reaction)9), (b) 합금반응 (Alloying reaction)38), (c) 전환반응 (Conversion reaction)41)의 전기화학적 반응 메커니즘

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Fig. 5 (a) Fe2O3 와 GNS 복합체 합성 개략도 (b) 비정질 Fe2O3 와 결정질 Fe2O3 에서의 나트륨 이동경로 및 전환반응 (c) Fe2O3@GNS 복합체의 SEM 이미지와 HAADF model에서 Fe2O3@GNS 의 원소 분포 TEM 이미지.

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Fig. 6. (a) Co3O4 MNSs 와 Co3O4 MNSs/3DGNs 복합체의 표면형상 및 전기화학적 셀 성능 비교, (b) 셰일(Shale) 구조를 가지는 Co3O4 의 표면형상 및 전기화학적 성능

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Fig. 7. (a) 다공성 CuO nanorod arrays (CNAs)의 구성도 (b) CNAs의 사이클 특성과 충방전 효율.

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Fig. 8. (a) 나트륨 이온과의 전환반응 개략도41) (b) TiO2 가 코팅된 다공성 구조의 덩굴 모양의 MoS2 나노섬유 전극의 구성도40) (c) TiO2 코팅된 덩굴 모양의 MoS2 나노섬유 전극의 ex-situ TEM 이미지와 벌크 MoS2, 덩굴 모양의 MoS2 나노섬유, TiO2 코팅된 덩굴 모양의 MoS2 나노섬유 전극의 사이클 특성 비교40) (d) 얇은 두께와 MoS2 결정 구조 내의 넓은 층간 간격을 가지는 박막형 MoS2 나노시트53)

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Fig. 9. (a) heterogeneous WSx /WO3 thorn-bush 나노섬유 합성 전략 개략도 (b) WSx /WO3 나노섬유의 충방전 곡선 (c) 100 mA g-1의 전류 밀도에서의 WSx 나노섬유와 400, 500°C에서 열처리 된 WSx 나노섬유의 사이클 성능 (d) 셀 작동 동안의 반응 메커니즘 개략도와 Na 대극 사진57)

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Fig. 10. (a) NaCF3SO3-DGM 내 CoS2와 CoS2-MWCNT 전극의 방전 용량 비교 (b) CoS2-MWCNT와 CoS2의 방전 과정 후 형성된 전극 구조물 개략도58)

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Fig. 11. (a) VS4. 구조물의 층간 간격과 top/ side view (b) 방전 후 NaS2 의 생성을 보이는 VS4/rGO 전극의 HRTEM 이미지와 충전 후 V의 생성을 통해 가역적 반응을 보이는 VS4/rGO전극의 HRTEM 이미지 (c) VS4/rGO 전극의 초기 가역 용량과 고율 특성10)

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology(KEIT), National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF)

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