Comparison of physicochemical traits of dry-cured ham from purebred Berkshire and crossbred Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc (LYD) pigs

  • Yim, Dong-Gyun (Department of Animal Science, Sangji University) ;
  • Jung, Jong-Hyun (Jung P&C Institute, Inc.) ;
  • Ali, Md. Mhahbbat (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Nam, Ki-Chang (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University)
  • Received : 2019.01.15
  • Accepted : 2019.01.21
  • Published : 2019.01.31


This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different pig breeds: Berkshire and $Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$ (LYD). Pigs were slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 110 kg and cooled at $0^{\circ}C$ for 24 h in a chilling room. Then, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physicochemical analyses. The dry-cured hams from Berkshire contain higher crude protein, fat, and ash level than those from LYD, whereas the hams from LYD had higher moisture contents than those from Berkshire(p < 0.05). The pH values of the hams from Berkshire were lower than those from LYD (p < 0.05). The hams from Berkshire had lower $L^*$ and $b^*$ values than those from LYD (p < 0.05). Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), elaidic acid (C18:1t), monounsaturated fatty acids, and ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (n-6/n-3) in the ham from Berkshire were higher than LYD (p < 0.05). Free amino acids such as aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, glutamic acid, and lysine in hams from Berkshire were higher than those from LYD (p < 0.05). The microbial population had no significant difference between Berkshire and LYD dry-cured ham. The cross sections of dry cured ham showed difference from different breeds using scanning electron microscope and indicates some differences in texture. Considering the meat quality parameters of ham, hams from Berkshire could provide variety of ham for consumer who are seeking various different qualities and stories.


Berkshire;LYD;Dry-cured ham;Physicochemical traits


Supported by : IPET


  1. Hui YH, Meunier-Goddik L, Hansen AS, Josephsen J, Nip WK, Stanfield PS, et al. Handbook of food and beverage fermentation technology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2004.
  2. Seong PN, Park KM, Kang SM, Kang GH, Cho SH, Park BY, et al. Effect of particular breed on the chemical composition, texture, color, and sensorial characteristics of dry-cured ham. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014;27:1164-73.
  3. Cilla I, Altarriba J, Guerrero L, Gispert M, Martinez L, Moreno C, et al. Effect of different Duroc line sires on carcass composition, meat quality and dry-cured ham acceptability. Meat Sci. 2006;72:252-60.
  4. Subramaniyan SA, Kang DR, Belal SA, Cho ESR, Jung JH, Jung YC, et al. Meat quality and physicochemical trait assessments of Berkshire and commercial 3-way crossbred pigs. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2016;36:641-9.
  5. Ryu YC, Choi YM, Lee SH, Shin HG, Choe JH, Kim JM, et al. Comparing the histochemical characteristics and meat quality traits of different pig breeds. Meat Sci. 2008;80:363-9.
  6. Lee SH, Choe JH, Choi YM, Jung KC, Rhee MS, Hong KC, et al. The influence of pork quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics on the eating quality of pork from various breeds. Meat Sci. 2012;90:284-91.
  7. Skrlep M, Candek-Potokar M, Kavar T, Segula B, Sante-Lhoutellier V, Gou P. Investigating PRKAG3 polymorphisms for traits of interest in dry ham production. Acta Agric Slov. 2008;Suppl 2:93-8.
  8. Barton-Gade PA. Meat and fat quality in boars, castrates and gilts. Livest Prod Sci. 1987;16:187-96.
  9. Suzuki K, Shibata T, Kadowaki H, Abe H, Toyoshima T. Meat quality comparison of Berkshire, Duroc and crossbred pigs sired by Berkshire and Duroc. Meat Sci. 2003;64:35-42.
  10. Lim DG, Jo C, Seo KS, Nam KC. Comparison of meat quality of loins and butts in different two-way crossbred pigs. Livest Sci. 2014;161:210-7.
  11. Sellier P. Genetics of meat and carcass traits. In: Rothchild MF, Ruvinsky A, editors. The genetics of the pigs. Wallingford (UK): CABI; 1998. p. 463-510.
  12. AOAC., editor. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Gaithersburg( MD): AOAC; 2000.
  13. O'Fallon JV, Busboom JR, Nelson ML, Gaskins CT. A direct method for fatty acid methyl ester synthesis: application to wet meat tissues, oils, and feedstuffs. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:1511-21.
  14. Hughes MC, Kerry JP, Arendt EK, Kenneally PM, McSweeney PLH, O'Neill EE. Characterization of proteolysis during the ripening of semi-dry fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 2002;62:205-16.
  15. SAS. STAT software for PC. Cary (NC): SAS Institute Inc.; 2002.
  16. Jimenez-Colmenero F, Ventanas J, Toldra F. Nutritional composition of dry-cured ham and its role in a healthy diet. Meat Sci. 2010;84:585-93.
  17. Ventanas S, Ventanas J, Jurado A, Estevez M. Quality traits in muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian and reciprocal Iberian${\times}$ Duroc crossbred pigs. Meat Sci. 2006;73:651-9.
  18. Marusic N, Petrovic M, Vidacek S, Petrak T, Medic H. Characterization of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham by means of physical and chemical analyses and volatile compounds. Meat Sci. 2011;88:786-90.
  19. Aldai N, Murray BE, Olivan M, Martinez A, Troy DJ, Osoro K, et al. The influence of breed and mh-genotype on carcass conformation, meat physico-chemical characteristics, and the fatty acid profile of muscle from yearling bulls. Meat Sci. 2006;72:486-95.
  20. Webb EC, O'Neill HA. The animal fat paradox and meat quality. Meat Sci. 2008;80:28-36.
  21. Ruiz J, Ventanas J, Cava R, Timon ML, Garcia C. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: influence of processing time and slice location. Food Res Int. 1998;31:53-8.
  22. Ramirez R, Cava R. Carcass composition and meat quality of three different Iberian${\times}$ Duroc genotype pigs. Meat Sci. 2007;75:388-96.
  23. Arnau J, Guerrero L, Hortos M, Garcia-Regueiro JA. The composition of white film and white crystals found in drycured hams. J Sci Food and Agric. 1996;70:449-52.<449::AID-JSFA520>3.0.CO;2-3
  24. Cornet M, Bousset J. Free amino acids and dipeptides in porcine muscles: differences between 'red' and 'white' muscles. Meat Sci. 1999;51:215-9.
  25. Graiver N, Pinotti A, Califano A, Zaritzky N. Diffusion of sodium chloride in pork tissue. J Food Eng. 2006;77(4):910-8.
  26. Xiong YL. Myofibrillar protein from different muscle fiber types: implications of biochemical and functional properties in meat processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1994;34:293-320.
  27. Seong PN, Cho SH, Kang GH, Kim JH, Park BY, Jeong DW, et al. The effects of salt levels and drying period on physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry-cured ham ripened in controlled condition. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2011;31:914-20.