A Study on the Characteristics of Convective Activities related to Atmospheric Stability Index and Thunderstorms over the Naro Space Center

나로우주센터 상공의 대기 안정도지수 및 뇌운관련 대류활동 특성 연구

  • Kim, Hong-Il (Flight Safety Technology Division, NARO Space Center, Korea Aerospace Research Institute) ;
  • Choi, Eun-Ho (Flight Safety Technology Division, NARO Space Center, Korea Aerospace Research Institute) ;
  • Seo, Seong-Gyu (Department of Environmental System Engineering, Chonnam National University)
  • 김홍일 (한국항공우주연구원 나로우주센터 비행안전기술실) ;
  • 최은호 (한국항공우주연구원 나로우주센터 비행안전기술실) ;
  • 서성규 (전남대학교 환경시스템공학과)
  • Received : 2019.09.26
  • Accepted : 2019.11.13
  • Published : 2019.12.31


Successful launch requires state-of-the-art launch vehicle technology and constant test operations, However, the meteorological threat to the launch vehicle flight trajectory is also an important factor for launch success. Atmospheric stability above the Naro Space Center at the this time is very important, especially because the initial flight operation can determine the success of the launch. Moreover, during the flight of launch vehicle with rapid pressure and thrust into the atmosphere, convection activity in the atmosphere may create environmental conditions that cause severe weather threats such as thunderstorms. Hence, studies of atmospheric instability characteristics over the Naro Space Center are a necessary part of successful launch missions. Therefore, the main aims of this study were to (1) verify the atmospheric stability index and convection activity characteristics over the Naro Space Center using radiosonde data observed from 2007 to 2018 by the Naro Space Center, (2) analyze changes in the atmospheric stability index according to monthly and seasonal changes, and (3) assess how the calculated atmospheric stability index is related to actual thunderstorm occurrence using statistical analysis. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the atmospheric characteristics above the Naro Space Center through the distribution chart of the atmospheric stability index during summer, when convection activity is highest. Finally, we assessed the relationship between lightning occurrence and unstable atmospheric conditions, through predictability analysis performed using the lightning observation data of the Korea Meteorological Administration.


Supported by : 한국항공우주연구원


  1. Barlow, J., 1994, Abundance of large whales in California coastal waters: A Comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991, Report of the International Whaling Commission, 44, 399-406.
  2. Dickson, R., Lazier, J., Meincke, J., Rhines, P., Swift, J., 1996, Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic, Progress in Oceanography, 38(3), 241-295.
  3. Eom, H. S., Suh, M. S., 2010, Analysis of stability indexes for lightning by using upper air observation data over South Korea, Atmosphere, 20(4), 467-482.
  4. Fuelberg, H. E., Biggar, D. G., 1994, The pre-convective environment of summer thunderstorms over the Florida Panhandle. Weather and Forecasting, 9(3), 316-326.<0316:TPEOST>2.0.CO;2
  5. Galway, J. G., 1956, The lifted index as a predictor of latent instability, Bulletins of the American Meteorological Society, 37, 528-529.
  6. George, J. G., 1960, Weather forecasting for aeronautics, Academic Press, 673.
  7. Grieser, J., 2012, Convection parameters, Selbstverl.
  8. Haklander, A. J., Van Delden., A., 2003, Thunderstorm predictors and their forecast skill for the Netherlands, Atmospheric Research, 67, 273-299.
  9. Huntrieser, H., Schiesser, H. H., Schmid, W., Waldvogel, A., 1997, Comparison of Traditional and Newly Developed Thunderstorms for Switzerland, Weather and Forecasting, 12(1), 108-125.<0108:COTAND>2.0.CO;2
  10. Jacovides, C. P., Yonctani, T. 1990, An Evaluation of stability indices for thunderstorm prediction in greater cyprus, Weather and Forecasting, 5(4), 1990, 559-569.<0559:AEOSIF>2.0.CO;2
  11. Kim, H. I., Ha, J. S., Chae, J. H., 2011, Analysis of atmospheric stability index on lightning occurrence around Naro Space Center in summer season. Proc., 2011 Korean Meteorological Society Fall Meeting, Busan, Korea, Korean Meteorological Society, 278-279.
  12. Kunz, M., 2007, The skill of convective parameters and indices to predict isolated and severe thunderstorms, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 7(2), 327-342.
  13. Litynska, Z., Parfiniewicz, J., Piwkowski, H., 1976, The prediction of air mass-thunderstorms and hails, WMO Interpretation of Broad-Scale NWP Prod, For Local Forecasting Purposes, 128-130.
  14. McNamara, T. M., Roeder, W. P., Merceret, F. J., 2010, The 2009 update to the lightning launch commit criteria. 14th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 17-21.
  15. Miller, R. C., 1975, Notes on analysis and severe storm forecasting procedures of the air force global weather central, AWS.
  16. Moncrieff, M. W., Green, J. S. A., 1972, The propagation of steady convective overturning in shear, Quaternary Journal of Royal Meteorological Society, 98(416), 336-352.
  17. Murakami, M., 1983, Analysis of the deep convective activity over the western pacific and southeast Asia. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, 61(1), 60-76.
  18. Nash, J., Oakley, T., Vomel, H., Wei, L., 2011, WMO inter-comparison of high quality radiosonde systems, Yangjiang, China, 12 July-3 August 2010, World Meteorological Organization, Instruments and Observing methods, Report, 107.
  19. Ohsawa, T., Ueda, H., Hayashi, T., Watanabe, A., Matsumoto, J., 2001, Diurnal variations of convective activity and rainfall in tropical Asia, Journal of Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, 79(1B), 333-352.
  20. Roeder, W. P., McNamara, T. M., 2006, A Survey of the lightning launch commit criteria. 2nd Conference on Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data, 29.
  21. Showalter, A. K., 1953, A Stability index for thunderstorm forecasting, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 34(6), 250-252.
  22. Wilks, D. S., 2011, Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences, Academic press.