The Multi-path Mediated Effect of Resilience and Entrepreneurship on the Relationship between Learned Helplessness and Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy

예비창업가의 학습된 무력감과 창업효능감의 관계에서 회복탄력성과 기업가정신의 다중매개역할

  • Received : 2019.11.10
  • Accepted : 2019.12.26
  • Published : 2019.12.31


This study aims to analyze multi-path mediating effect of resilience and entrepreneurship on the relationship between learned helplessness ann entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Research sample consisted of 154 university students in Gyeonggi-Do. The results of this research is as follows: First, learned helplessness showed a negative effects on entrepreneurship and ESE. Second, resilience showed a positive effects on entrepreneurship and ESE. Third, the mediating effect of resilience was significant on the relationship between learned helplessness and ESE. Fourth, entrepreneurship turned out to mediate on the relationship between learned helplessness and ESE. Finally, resilience and entrepreneurship had shown multi-path mediating effects on the relationship between learned helplessness and ESE (learned helplessness→resilience→entrepreneurship→ESE). In particular, this study conclude with implications for future research, limitations of this research, and practical application.


Supported by : 단국대학교


  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E., & Teasdale, J. D.(1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation, Journal of abnormal psychology, 87, 49.
  2. Ajzen, I.(1991). The theory of planned behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
  3. Arenius, P., & Minniti, M.(2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship, Small Business Economics, 24(3), 233-247.
  4. Ayala, J., & Manzano, G.(2014). The resilience of the entrepreneur. influence on the success of the business, A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology, 42, 126-135.
  5. Bandura, A., & Jourden, F. J.(1991). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social comparison on complex decision making, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 941-951.
  6. Bandura, A.(1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, Psychological Review, 84(2), 191.
  7. Bandura, A.(1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: Freeman and Company.
  8. Barbosa, S., Gerhardt, M., & Kickul, J.(2007). The role of cognitive style and risk preference on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, Journal of Leadership & Organizational studies, 13(4), 86-104.
  9. Biraglia, A., & Kadile, V.(2017). The role of entrepreneurial passion and creativity in developing entrepreneurial intentions: Insights from American homebrewers, Journal of Small Business Management, 55(1), 170-188.
  10. Birley, S. & Westhead, P.(2004). A taxonomy of business start-up reasons and their impact on firm growth and size, Journal of Business Venturing, 9(1), 7-31.
  11. Boudreaux, C. J., Nikolaev, B. N., & Klein, P.(2019). Socio-cognitive traits and entrepreneurship: The moderating role of economic institutions, Journal of Business Venturing, 34(1), 178-196.
  12. Bullough, A., Renko, M., & Myatt, T.(2014). Danger zone entrepreneurs: The importance of resilience and self-efficacy for entrepreneurial intentions, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 38(3), 473-499.
  13. Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & Crick, A.(1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?, Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295-316.
  14. Choi, H. Y., & Jeong, H. J.(2008). A study on effect of management education to entrepreneurship improvement, Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 15(3), 213-230.
  15. Choi, J., & Hyun, E. M.(2018). The effect of positive affect on interpersonal relationship and learned helplessness, The Korean Journal of Technology Education, 18(3), 130-152.
  16. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R.(2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76-82.
  17. Cooper, N., Estes, C. A., & Allen, L.(2004). Bouncing back, Parks and Recreatio, 39(4), 28-35.
  18. Dalborg, C., & Wincent, J.(2015). The idea is not enough: The role of self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between pull entrepreneurship and founder passion: A research note, International Small Business Journal, 33, 974-984.
  19. Darmanto, S., & Yuliari, G.(2018). mediating role of entrepreneurial self efficacy in developing entrepreneurial behavior of entrepreneur students, Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 24(1), 1-14.
  20. Drucker, P.(1985). Purposeful innovation and the seven sources for innovative opportunity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: practice and Principles, 30-36.
  21. Dyer, J. G., & McGuinness, T. M.(1996). Resilience: Analysis of the concept, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 10(5), 276-282.
  22. Eggers, J. P., & Song, L.(2015). Dealing with failure: Serial entrepreneurs and the costs of changing industries between ventures, Academy of Management Journal, 58(6), 1785-1803.
  23. Farashah, A.(2015). The effects of demographic, cognitive and institutional factors on development of entrepreneurial intention: Toward a socio-cognitive model of entrepreneurial career, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 13, 452-476.
  24. Frese, M., & Fay, D.(2001). Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century, Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133-187.
  25. Gartner, W. B.(1988). Who is an entrepreneur? Is the wrong question, American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), 11-33.
  26. George, J. M., & Jones, G. R.(2001). Towards a process model of individual change in organizations, Human Relations, 54, 419-444.
  27. Goodall, J., & Johnston-Wilder, S.(2015). Overcoming mathematical helplessness and developing mathematical resilience in parents: An illustrative case study, Creative Education, 6(5), 526-535.
  28. Hisrich, R., Peters, M., & Shepherd, D.(2013). Entrepreneurship, ninth edition, NY: McGraw Hill.
  29. Kasouf, C. J., Morrish, S. C., & Miles, M. P.(2015). The moderating role of explanatory style between experience and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(1), 1-17.
  30. Kim, A., & Clifford, M. M.(1988). Goal source, goal difficulty, and individual difference variables as predictors of response to failure, British journal of educational psychology, 58, 28-43.
  31. Kim, A.(2002). Development of standardized student motivation scales, Journal of Educational Evaluation, 15(1), 157-184.
  32. Kim, G., Kim, J., & Park, S.(2012). Psychological capital, Seoul: LUX MEDIA.
  33. Kim, M. S., & Kim, Y. G.(2012). Effects of individual trait, educational, organizational factors on entrepreneurial intentions in tourism college students: The mediating effects of entrepreneurial self-Efficacy, Journal of Foodservice Management, 15(5), 61-84.
  34. Kim, S. Y., Kwak, S. Y., & Jung, G. O.(2019). The impact of resilience on entrepreneurial intention of failed entrepreneur: Focus on the moderating role of entrepreneurial experience, role model and entrepreneurial education, Regional Industry Review, 42(1), 57-82.
  35. Kim, S., Han, J., & Lee, S.(2016). The effects of fear of failure factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions of startup business candidate, Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 11(3), 49-61.
  36. Kim, Y. M.(2012). Effects of daily hassles and learned helplessness on psychological maladaptation among adolescents: Focused on moderated mediation effect of family cohesion, Journal of Adolescent Welfare, 14(3), 47-73.
  37. Krueger, N. F., & Dickson, P. R.(1994). How believing in ourselves increases risk taking: perceived self-efficacy and opportunity recognition, Decision Sciences, 25(3), 385-400.
  38. Lee, C., Hallak, R., & Sardeshmukh, S.(2016). Innovation, entrepreneurship, and restaurant performance: A higher-order structural model, Tourism Management, 53, 215-228.
  39. Lee, J., & Kim, N.(2019). The effects of serial entrepreneurs' failure attribution on subsequent venture: Moderating effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and resilience, Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 13-26.
  40. Luthans, F.(2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23. 695-706.
  41. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J.(2007). Psychological capital, Oxford University Press.
  42. Maatta, S., Nurmi, J. E., & Stattin, H.(2007). Achievement Orientations, School Adjustment, and Well‐being: A Longitudinal Study, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(4), 789-812.
  43. Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E.(1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence, Journal of Experimental Psycholgy: General, 105(1), 3-46.
  44. Maritz, A., & Brown, C.(2013). Enhancing entrepreneurship self-efficacy through vocational entrepreneurship education programmes, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 65(4), 543-559.
  45. Markham, G., Balkin, D., & Baron, R.(2002). Inventors and new venture formation: The effects of general self-efficacy and regretful thinking, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2) 149-165.
  46. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P.(2001). Job burnout, Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 397-422.
  47. Miller, D. K.(1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms, Management Science, 29(7), 770-791.
  48. Miller, D. K.(1984). Conditions Affecting the Occurrence of Causal Attributions in Response to a Learned Helplessness Induction, Lubbock: Doctor of Philosophy, Texas Tech University.
  49. Monllor, J., & Murphy, P. J.(2017). Natural disasters, entrepreneurship, and creation after destruction: a conceptual approach, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 23(4), 618-637.
  50. Morales-Gualdron, S. T., & Roig, S.(2005). The new venture decision: An analysis based on the GEM project database, The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(4), 479-499.
  51. MSS․(2018). 2017 Startup Statistics, Seoul: MSS.
  52. MSS․KISED(2019). Comparative analysis of start-up and venture statistics of major developed countries, Seoul: MSS․KISED.
  53. Murnieks, C., Mosakowski, E., & Cardon, M.(2014). Pathways of passion: Identity centrality, passion, and behavior among entrepreneurs, Journal of Management, 40, 1583-1606.
  54. Nam, J. M, Kim, S, H., & Bang, N. S.(2014). Entrepreneurship & Start-up. Seoul: Booknet.
  55. Newman, A., Obschonka, M., Schwarz, S., Cohen, M., & Nielsen, I.(2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: A systematic review of the literature on its theoretical foundations, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes, and an agenda for future research, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 403-419.
  56. Overmier, J. B., & Seligman, M. E.(1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63(1), 28.
  57. Park, I. J.(2019). Exploring the link between intrapreneurship and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 165-180.
  58. Park, J. C., & Kim, J. S.(2019). The relationship among job-seeking stress, learned helplessness, job-seeking efficacy, and job preparation behavior, Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 19(4), 457-482.
  59. Park, J. W., & Choi, M. J.(2016). The impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the entrepreneurial intention of university students : The moderating effect of regulatory focus, Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 9-19.
  60. Park, K. H.(2008). The influence of learned helplessness and failure tolerance on the academic achievement and job performance, Knowledge Management Research, 9(1), 61-76.
  61. Park, S. H.(2008). The relationship between children's and adolescents' academic stress and learned helplessness, Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 15(3), 159-182.
  62. Peterson, C., & Park, C.(1998). Learned helplessness and explanatory style, In Advanced Personality Springer, Boston, MA: 287-310.
  63. Peterson, C., Maier, S., & Seligman, M. E.(1993). Learned helplessness a theory for the age of personal control, New York: Oxford University Press.
  64. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W.(1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects, Journal of Management, 12, 531-544.
  65. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F.(2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models, Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891.
  66. Rauch, A., & Frese, M.(2007). Let's Put the Person Back into Entrepreneurship Research: A Meta-analysis on the Relationship between Business Owners' Personality Traits, Business Creation, and Success, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(4), 353-385.
  67. Reeve, J.(2009). Understanding motivation and emotion(5th ed.), New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  68. Reivich, K., & Shatte, A.(2002). The resilience factor: 7 essential skills for overcoming life's inevitable obstacles, New York: Random House.
  69. Rogoff, E. G., Lee, M. S., & Suh, D. C.(2004). Who done it? Attributions by entrepreneurs and experts of the factors that cause and impede small business success, Journal of Small Business Management, 42, 364-376.
  70. Rosenthal, T. L.(1993). To soothe the savage breast, Behavior Research and Therapy, 31, 439-462.
  71. Rutherford, M. W., & Holt, D. T.(2007). Corporate entrepreneurship: An empirical look at the innovativeness dimension and its antecedents, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 20(3), 429-446.
  72. Ryff, C., & Singer, B.(2003). Flourishing under fire: Resilience as a prototype of challenged thriving, In C. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flouring: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 15-36), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  73. Schepman, S. B., & Richmond, L.(2003). Employee expectations and motivation: An application from the "learned helplessness" paradigm, Journal of American Academy of Business, 3(1/2), 405.
  74. Scherer, R. F., Adams, J. S., Carley, S. S., & Wiebe, F. A.(1989). Role model performance effects on development of entrepreneurial career preference, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(3), 53-72.
  75. Schumpeter, J. A.(1934). The Theory of Economic Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  76. Sedlan-Konig, L.(2016). Integrating entrepreneur self-efficacy into education at universities, Ekonomski Vjesnik/Econviews: Review of Contemporary Business, Entrepreneurship and Economic Issues, 29(2), 311-321.
  77. Seligman, M. E., & Maier, S. F.(1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock, Journal of experimental psychology, 74(1), 1-9.
  78. Seligman, M. E.(1975). Helplessness:On Depression, development and Death, San Francisco:W. H. Freeman.
  79. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S.(2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research, Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
  80. Shane, S.(2012). Reflections on the 2010 AMR decade award: Delivering on the promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research, Academy of Management Review, 37(1), 10-20.
  81. Shane, S., Locke, E. A., & Collins, C. J.(2003). Entrepreneurial motivation, Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257-279.
  82. Shinnar, R. S., Hsu, D. K., & Powell, B. C.(2014). Self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, and gender: Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education longitudinally, International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 561-570.
  83. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N.(2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations, Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422-445.
  84. Stevenson, H. H.(1983). A perspective on entrepreneurship, Harvard Business School Working Paper, 9, 384-131.
  85. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M.(2009). The Extent and Nature of Opportunity Identification by Experienced Entrepreneurs, Journal of Business Venturing, 24(2), 99-115.
  86. Uy, M. A., Foo, M. D., & Song, Z.(2013). Joint effects of prior start-up experience and coping strategies on entrepreneurs' psychological well-being, Journal of Business Venturing, 28(5), 583-597.
  87. Wang, C., Wong, P., & Lu, Q.(2002). Tertiary education and entrepreneurial intentions, in P. Phan (Ed.). Technological entrepreneurship, Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT.
  88. Wang, L., & Chung, S.(2018). The influence of learned helplessness on employee's innovative behavior: The mediator effect of intrinsic motivation and the moderator effect of learning behaviors from failures, Business Education Review, 33(6), 335-363.
  89. Waxman, H. C., Gray, J. P., & Padron, Y. N.(2003). Review of Research on Educational Resilience, Berkeley, CA: UC Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence.
  90. Werner, E., & Smith, R.(1992). Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood, Cornell University Press.
  91. Wiklund, J., Nikolaev, B., Shir, N., Foo, M., & Bradley, S. (2019). Entrepreneurship and well-being: Past, present, and future, Journal of Business Venturing, 34, 579-588.
  92. Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D.(2007). Gender, entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387-406.
  93. Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A.(1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management, Academy of Management Review, 14, 361-384.
  94. Yang, J. H.(2015). A study of the effect of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial motivation: Focused on mediating effect of entrepreneurship, Korea Academy Industrial Cooperation Society, 16(4), 2564-2572.
  95. Yoon, N. S.(2012). The effect of potential entrepreneurial motivations on entrepreneurship and commitment to starts-up: Mediating role of entrepreneurship, Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 25(2), 1537-1557.
  96. Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F.(2005). Resiliency Development of Organization, Leaders and Employees: Multi-level Theory Building for Sustained Performance, Authentic Leadership Theory and Practice: Origins, Effects and Development, William Gardner, Bruce J. A., & F. O. Walumbwa, eds., Elsevier, 303-343.
  97. Zahra S. A.(1991). Predictors and financial outcomes of corporate entrepreneurship: an explorative study, Journal of Business Venturing, 6(4), 259-285.
  98. Zbierowski, P.(2015). Positive antecedents and consequences of entrepreneurship: Theoretical considerations, Journal of Positive Management, 6(3), 16-28.
  99. Zhang, P., & Cain, K. W.(2017), Reassessing the link between risk aversion and entrepreneurial intention: The mediating role of the determinants of planned behaviour, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(5), 793-811.
  100. Zhao, H., Seibert, S., & Hills, G.(2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions, Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1265-1272.
  101. Ziyae, B., Mobaraki, M. H., & Saeediyoun, M.(2015). The effect of psychological capital on innovation in information technology, Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 5(1), 1-8.
  102. 손낙주(1997). 가정환경, 아동의 자아평가와 학습된 무력감간의 인과관계, 박사학위논문, 경북대학교 대학원.
  103. 중소벤처기업부(2019). 창업지원기업, 5년 후 생존률 일반 창업기업 보다 두배 높아(2019.4.3.), 서울: 중소벤처기업부.