- Volume 24 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Determining the reuse of metal mine wastes based on leaching test and human health risk assessment
- Ju, Won Jung (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
- Hwang, Sun Kyung (Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) ;
- Jho, Eun Hea (Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) ;
- Nam, Kyoungphile (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University)
- Received : 2017.12.15
- Accepted : 2018.06.20
- Published : 2019.03.31
Meeting the regulations based on the short-term leaching tests may not necessarily assure the environmental and human health safety of reusing mine wastes. This study investigated heavy metal leachability of four metal mine waste samples (e.g., Z, Y, H, and M) and human health risk of reusing them as construction materials. The heavy metal leachability did not depend on the total heavy metal contents. For example, the Z sample contained greater amounts of As and Fe than Zn, but the leachates contained only Zn at a detectable level. This can be attributed to the crystalline structure and heavy metal fractions of the mine wastes. The leaching test results suggested that the four mine waste samples are potentially reusable. But the Z and M samples reused in industrial areas imposed carcinogenic risks. This was largely attributed to As that is exposed via dermal contact. The Y and H samples reused in residential areas imposed carcinogenic risk. The major exposure route was the ingestion of crops grown on the mine wastes and Cr was the major concern. The two-stage assessment involving leaching tests and risk assessment can be used to promote safe reuse of mine wastes.
Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)
- Paek SH, Ko JI, Lee JS, Kwon HH. Current Status of mine's environmental pollution and prevention restoration technology. Geoenviron. Eng. 2008;9:8-18.
- Karaka O, Reddy KR. Environmental assessment of mine tailings: Can-Etili Basin (Turkey) as a case study. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM: Surveying Geology & Mining Ecology Management. 2014;3:221-232.
- Chung JH, Lee DY, Lee JJ. Heavy metal pollution status of the metal mine nearby residents. Seoul: Jipmoon Publishing Inc.; 2002.p. 13-14.
- Ju WJ, Jho EH, Nam KP. From mine tailings to electricity using ecological function: Evaluation of increase in current density by increasing the oxidation rate of pyrite using iron oxidizing bacteria. Ecol. Resil. Infrastruct. 2014;1:19-24. https://doi.org/10.17820/eri.2014.1.1.019
- Ju WJ, Jho EH, Nam KP. Effect of pyrite and indigenous bacteria on electricity generation using mine tailings. Ecol. Resil. Infrastruct. 2015;2:93-98. https://doi.org/10.17820/eri.2015.2.1.093
- Ji SW, Yim GJ. Mine reclamation and its prevention technology. J. Korean Geosynthetics Soc. 2010;9:19-23.
- Cobb GP, Sands K, Waters M, Wixson BG, Dorward-King E. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2000;19:600-607. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620190311
- Walker DJ, Clemente R, Bernal MP. Contrasting effects of manure and compost on soil pH, heavy metal availability and growth of Chenopodium album L. in a soil contaminated by pyritic mine waste. Chemosphere 2004;57:215-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.05.020
- Xenidis A, Papassiopi N, Komnitsas K. Carbonate-rich mining tailings in Lavrion: Risk assessment and proposed rehabilitation schemes. Adv. Environ. Res. 2003;7:479-494. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1093-0191(02)00017-5
- Lee SW, Lee BT, Kim JY, Kim KW, Lee JS. Human risk assessment for heavy metals and As contamination in the abandoned metal mine areas, Korea. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2006;119:233-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-9024-5
- Levei E, Frentiu T, Ponta M, Tanaselia C, Borodi G. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania. Chem. Cent. J. 2013;7:1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-7-1
- Shaw SC, Groat LA, Jambor JL, Blowes DW, Hanton-Fong CJ, Stuparyk RA. Mineralogical study of base metal tailings with various sulfide contents, oxidized in laboratory columns and field lysimeters. Environ. Geol. 1998;33:209-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050239
- USEPA. Method 3052 Microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous and organically based matrices [Internet]. USEPA; 1996 [cited 15 December 2017]. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/3052.pdf.
- Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem. 1979;51:844-851. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50043a017
- KMOE (Korea Ministry of Environment). Effluent water quality standards. KMOE; 2014.
- USEPA. Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods, Method 1312: Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure [Internet]. USEPA; 1994 [cited 29 November 2015]. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/1312.pdfaboutSynthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure/.
- KMOE (Korea Ministry of Environment). Standard water quality test method No. 2017-65. KMOE; 2016.
- KMOE (Korea Ministry of Environment). Korea standard test for solid waste No. 2014-31. KMOE; 2014.
- Kelly ME, Brauning SE, Schoof RA, Ruby MV. Assessing oral bioavailability of metals in soil. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press; 2002.
- KMOE (Korea Ministry of Environment). Assessment of soil environment No. 2015-64. KMOE; 2015.
- Cappuyns V, Alian V, Vassilieva E, Swennen R. pH dependent leaching behavior of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and As from mining wastes and slags: kinetics and mineralogical control. Waste Biomass Valori. 2014;5:355-368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-013-9274-3
- Nys C, Versieren L, Cordery KI, Blust R, Smolders E, De Schamphelaere KA. Systematic evaluation of chronic metal-mixture toxicity to three species and implications for risk assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017;51:4615-4623. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05688
- Ordonez A, Alvarez R, Charlesworth S, De Miguel E, Loredo J. Risk assessment of soils contaminated by mercury mining, Northern Spain. J. Environ. Monit. 2011;13:128-136. https://doi.org/10.1039/C0EM00132E
- Meunier L, Walker SR, Wragg J, Parsons MB, Koch I, Jamieson HE, Reimer KJ. Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on the bioaccessibility of arsenic from tailings and soil in gold mine districts of Nova Scotia. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010;44:2667-2674. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9035682
- USEPA. Exposure factors handbook EPA/600/R-090/052F [Internet]. USEPA; 2011 [cited 18 July 2016]. Available from: https://hero.epa.gov/hero/index.cfm/project/page/project_id/1854 about Exposure factors handbook/.
- Juhasz AL, Weber J, Smith E, et al. Evaluation of SBRC-gastric and SBRC-intestinal methods for the prediction of in vivo relative lead bioavailability in contaminated soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009;43:4503-4509. https://doi.org/10.1021/es803238u
- Juhasz AL, Weber J, Smith E, et al. Assessment of four commonly employed in vitro arsenic bioaccessibility assays for predicting in vivo relative arsenic bioavailability in contaminated soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009;43:9487-9494. https://doi.org/10.1021/es902427y
- Juhasz AL, Weber J, Naidu R, et al. Determination of cadmium relative bioavailability in contaminated soils and its prediction using in vitro methodologies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010;44:5240-5247. https://doi.org/10.1021/es1006516
- Hu X, Zhang Y, Ding Z, et al. Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) in TSP and PM2.5 in Nanjing, China. Atmos. Environ. 2012;57:146-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.04.056
- Molina RM, Schaider LA, Donaghey TC, Shine JP, Brain JD. Mineralogy affects geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of zinc. Environ. Pollut. 2013;182:217-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.013
- Sialelli J, Davidson CM, Hursthouse AS, Ajmone-Marsan F. Human bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the city of Torino, Italy. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2011;9:197-202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-009-0263-5