Noodle consumption is positively associated with incident hypertension in middle-aged and older Korean women

  • Kim, Jiwon (Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Jihye (Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kang, Yunhee (Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health)
  • Received : 2018.09.13
  • Accepted : 2019.01.03
  • Published : 2019.04.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between refined grain consumption by subtype and the incidence of hypertension from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total, 5,018 participants (2,439 men and 2,579 women) from 40 to 69 years without hypertension were recruited at the beginning (2001-2002). Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication use were assessed biennially for the incidence of hypertension during the 8-year follow-up period (2009-2010). Hypertension was diagnosed as systolic blood pressure ${\geq}140mmHg$ or diastolic blood pressure ${\geq}90mmHg$ or antihypertensive medication use. Dietary intake including refined grains was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and the follow-up (2005-2006). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident hypertension according to refined-grain consumption. RESULTS: A total of 1,377 cases of hypertension (710 men and 667 women) were newly ascertained. Frequent noodle consumers (${\geq}5servings/week$) among the women had a 2.3-fold higher risk of hypertension than infrequent noodle consumers after adjustment for potential confounders (HR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.33-4.01, P for trend = 0.0001). However, no significant association was found among the men. The intake of other refined grain products such as white rice and breads was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. CONCLUSION: Frequent noodle consumption was positively associated with a risk of incident hypertension in South Korean women.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


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