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Effect of nutrient composition in a mixed meal on the postprandial glycemic response in healthy people: a preliminary study

Kim, Jiyoung S.;Nam, Kisun;Chung, Sang-Jin

  • Received : 2018.07.11
  • Accepted : 2018.11.13
  • Published : 2019.04.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the postprandial glucose response (PPGR) to food items, and glycemic load (GL) is a measure of the PPGR to the diet. For those who need to maintain a healthy diet, it is beneficial to regulate appropriate levels of blood glucose. In reality, what influences the meal GI or GL depends on the macronutrient composition and the physical chemistry reactions in vivo. Thus, we investigated whether different macronutrients in a meal significantly affect the PPGR and the validity of calculated GI and GL values for mixed meals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 12 healthy subjects (6 male, 6 female) were recruited at a campus setting, and subjects consumed a total of 6 test meals one by one, each morning between 8:00 and 8:30 am after 12 h of fasting. PPGR was measured after each consumed meal and serial finger pricks were performed at indicated times. Test meals included 1) 68 g oral glucose, 2) 210 g rice, 3) rice plus 170 g egg white (RE), 4) rice plus 200 g bean sprouts (RS), 5) rice plus 10 g oil (RO), and 6) rice plus, egg white, bean sprouts, and oil (RESO). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated to assess the PPGR. Mixed meal GI and GL values were calculated based on the nutrients the subjects consumed in each of the test meals. RESULTS: The iAUC for all meals containing two macronutrients (RS, RO, or RE) were not significantly different from the rice iAUC, whereas, the RESO iAUC ($2,237.5{\pm}264.9$) was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The RESO meal's calculated GI and GL values were different from the actual GI and GL values measured from the study subjects (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mixed meal containing three macronutrients (RESO) decreased the PPGR in healthy individuals, leading to significantly lower actual GI and GL values than those derived by nutrient-based calculations. Thus, consuming various macronutrient containing meals is beneficial in regulating PPGR.

Keywords

Glycemic index;glycemic load;blood glucose;carbohydrate;meals