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Anti-inflammatory effect of Lycium barbarum on polarized human intestinal epithelial cells

  • Lee, So-Rok ;
  • Hwang, Hye-Jeong ;
  • Yoon, Ju-Gyeong ;
  • Bae, Eu-Young ;
  • Goo, Kyo-Suk ;
  • Cho, Sang-Joon ;
  • Cho, Jin Ah
  • Received : 2018.10.30
  • Accepted : 2018.12.26
  • Published : 2019.04.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has rapidly escalated in Asia (including Korea) due to increasing westernized diet patterns subsequent to industrialization. Factors associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are demonstrated to be one of the major causes of IBD. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) on ER stress. MATERIALS/METHODS: Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line and polarized Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells were treated with crude extract of the L. chinense fruit (LF). Paracellular permeability was measured to examine the effect of tight junction (TJ) integrity. The regulatory pathways of ER stress were evaluated in MEF knockout (KO) cell lines by qPCR for interleukin (IL) 6, IL8 and XBP1 spliced form (XBP1s). Immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP), XBP1s and CCAAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) expressions were measured by RT-PCR. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM) at high resolution was applied to observe morphological changes after treatments. RESULTS: Exposure to LF extract strengthened the TJ, both in the presence and absence of inflammation. In polarized Caco-2 pretreated with LF, induction in the expression of proinflammatory marker IL8 was not significant, whereas ER stress marker XBP1s expression was significantly increased. In wild type (wt) MEF cells, IL6, CHOP and XBP1 spliced form were dose-dependently induced when exposed to $12.5-50{\mu}g/mL$ extract. However, absence of XBP1 or $IRE1{\alpha}$ in MEF cells abolished this effect. CONCLUSION: Results of this study show that LF treatment enhances the barrier function and reduces inflammation and ER stress in an $IRE1{\alpha}$-XBP1-dependent manner. These results suggest the preventive effect of LF on healthy intestine, and the possibility of reducing the degree of inflammatory symptoms in IBD patients.

Keywords

Lycium barbarum;ER stress;inflammation

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea