Antioxidant effects of kimchi supplemented with black raspberry during fermentation protect against liver cirrhosis-induced oxidative stress in rats

  • Received : 2018.10.30
  • Accepted : 2019.01.08
  • Published : 2019.04.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is a major effector of various diseases; accordingly, antioxidants are frequently ingested in order to prevent or alleviate disease symptoms. Kimchi contains various natural antioxidants, and it is known that the functional activity varies depending on the ingredients and fermentation state. Black raspberries (BR) contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant effects. This study investigated the antioxidant and liver-protection effects of kimchi supplemented with black raspberry juice powder (BJP). MATERIALS/METHODS: BJP-added kimchi (BAK; at 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentrations of BJP) and control (without BJP) were prepared and fermented at $4^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks. Changes in the antioxidant effects of BAK during fermentation were investigated. In addition, the protective activity of BAK against oxidative stress was investigated in a liver cirrhosis-induced animal model in vivo. RESULTS: BAK groups showed the acidity and pH of optimally ripened (OR) kimchi at 2 weeks of fermentation along with the highest lactic acid bacterial counts. Additionally, BAK groups displayed a higher content of phenolic compounds and elevated antioxidant activities relative to the control, with the highest antioxidant effect observed at 2 weeks of fermentation of OR 1% BAK. After feeding the OR 1% BAK to thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis rats, we observed decreased glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities and elevated superoxide dismutase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that the antioxidant effects of OR BAK and feeding of OR 1% BAK resulted in liver-protective effects against oxidative stress.


Supported by : World Institute of Kimchi


  1. Willcox JK, Ash SL, Catignani GL. Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2004;44:275-95.
  2. Yang UJ, Ko SH, Shim SM. Vitamin C from standardized water spinach extract on inhibition of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by heavy metals in HepG2 cells. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2014;57:161-6.
  3. Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4:118-26.
  4. Zhang Y, Tocchetti CG, Krieg T, Moens AL. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in the maintenance of myocardial function. Free Radic Biol Med 2012;53:1531-40.
  5. Jung JY, Lee SH, Lee HJ, Seo HY, Park WS, Jeon CO. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol 2012;153:378-87.
  6. Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE, Daily JW 3rd. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. J Med Food 2014;17:6-20.
  7. Park JM, Shin JH, Gu JG, Yoon SJ, Song JC, Jeon WM, Suh HJ, Chang UJ, Yang CY, Kim JM. Effect of antioxidant activity in kimchi during a short-term and over-ripening fermentation period. J Biosci Bioeng 2011;112:356-9.
  8. Cui M, Kim HY, Lee KH, Jeong JK, Hwang JH, Yeo KY, Ryu BH, Choi JH, Park KY. Antiobesity effects of kimchi in diet-induced obese mice. J Ethnic Foods 2015;2:137-44.
  9. Kim BK, Choi JM, Kang SA, Park KY, Cho EJ. Antioxidative effects of kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8:638-43.
  10. Choi H, Kim M, Park HS, Kim YS, Shin DH. Alcoholic fermentation of bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) wine. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2006;38:543-7.
  11. Tulio AZ Jr, Reese RN, Wyzgoski FJ, Rinaldi PL, Fu R, Scheerens JC, Miller AR. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside as primary phenolic antioxidants in black raspberry. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:1880-8.
  12. Lee J, Whang JB, Youn NR, Lee SY, Lee HJ, Kim YJ, Koh KH. Antioxidant and oxygen radical scavenging capacities of the extracts of pear cactus, mulberry and Korean black raspberry fruit. J Food Sci Nutr 2009;14:188-94.
  13. Park EK, Cho SM, Lee JE, Lee SM, Kim YS, Go MS, Kim YJ, Jung IK, Auh JH, Choi HK, Kim JH. Effects of Korean black raspberry supplementation on oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy male smokers. J Funct Foods 2015;16:393-402.
  14. Xiao T, Guo Z, Bi X, Zhao Y. Polyphenolic profile as well as anti-oxidant and anti-diabetes effects of extracts from freeze-dried black raspberries. J Funct Foods 2017;31:179-87.
  15. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:3010-4.
  16. Park SY, Jang HL, Lee JH, Choi Y, Kim H, Hwang J, Seo D, Kim S, Nam JS. Changes in the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) kimchi extracts during different fermentation periods. Food Sci Biotechnol 2017;26:105-12.
  17. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1995;28:25-30.
  18. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:1231-7.
  19. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr Diet 1986;44:307-15.
  20. Seeram NP. Berries. In: Heber D, Blackburn GL, Go VL, Milner J, editors. Nutritional Oncology. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 2006. p.615-28.
  21. Om AS, Song YN, Noh G, Kim H, Choe J. Nutrition composition and single, 14-day and 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity studies of the leaves and stems of Rubus coreanus Miquel. Molecules 2016;21:65.
  22. Sikora E, Cieslik E, Leszczynska T, Filipiak-Florkiewicz A, Pisulewski PM. The antioxidant activity of selected cruciferous vegetables subjected to aquathermal processing. Food Chem 2008;107:55-9.
  23. Bang BH, Seo JS, Jeong EJ. A method for maintaining good kimchi quality during fermentation. Korean J Food Nutr 2008;21:51-5.
  24. Lee JW, Cha DS, Hwang KT, Park HJ. Effect of $CO_{2}$ absorbent and high-pressure treatment on the shelf-life of packaged kimchi products. Int J Food Sci Technol 2003;38:519-24.
  25. Yu KW, Hwang JH, Keum JH, Lee KH. Quality characteristics of kimchi seasoning with black garlic. Korean J Food Nutr 2016;29:677-83.
  26. Lee SH, Kang KM. Fermentation characteristics of tofu with kimchi seasoning. Lebensm Wiss Technol 2014;59:1041-6.
  27. Yang MR, No GR, Kang SN, Kim SW, Kim IS. Effect on cryopreservation stability of kimchi duruchigi supplemented with Rubus coreanus Miquel extract. J Life Sci 2015;25:1362-9.
  28. Kang OJ. Production of fermented tea with Rhodotorula yeast and comparison of its antioxidant effects to those of unfermented tea. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2010;26:422-7.
  29. Ohara H, Owaki M, Sonomoto K. Xylooligosaccharide fermentation with Leuconostoc lactis. J Biosci Bioeng 2006;101:415-20.
  30. Park KY, Rhee SH. Functional foods from fermented vegetable products: kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) and functionality. In: Shi J, Ho CT, Shahidi F, editors. Asian Functional Foods. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2005. p.341-80.
  31. Hajovsky H, Hu G, Koen Y, Sarma D, Cui W, Moore DS, Staudinger JL, Hanzlik RP. Metabolism and toxicity of thioacetamide and thioacetamide S-oxide in rat hepatocytes. Chem Res Toxicol 2012;25:1955-63.
  32. Salama SM, AlRashdi AS, Abdulla MA, Hassandarvish P, Bilgen M. Protective activity of Panduratin A against thioacetamide-induced oxidative damage: demonstration with in vitro experiments using WRL-68 liver cell line. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:279.
  33. Ozaki M, Nakamura M, Teraoka S, Ota K. Ebselen, a novel antioxidant compound, protects the rat liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transpl Int 1997;10:96-102.
  34. Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
  35. Crapo JD, McCord JM, Fridovich I. Preparation and assay of superoxide dismutases. Methods Enzymol 1978;53:382-93.
  36. Choi MH, Shim SM, Kim GH. Phenolic acids and quercetin from Korean black raspberry seed protected against acetaminopheninduced oxidative stress in mice. J Funct Foods 2015;19:404-16.
  37. Chen J, Sun H, Sun A, Lin QH, Wang Y, Tao X. Studies of the protective effect and antioxidant mechanism of blueberry anthocyanins in a CC14-induced liver injury model in mice. Food Agric Immunol 2012;23:352-62.