- Volume 8 Issue 1
This study investigates the hair restoration efficacy of selected radish saponin extracts on nude mice. Nude mice genetically predisposed to pattern balding were used in this study. Our study revealed the underlying mechanism of stimulating hair growth in athymic nude mice by repair the nu/nu follicular keratin differentiation defect. Thus, the topical application of radish saponin may represent a novel strategy for the management and therapy of certain forms of alopecia. The term of hair density of PEE treated nude mice were significantly increase as compared with of control nude mice. Histological observation of skin sample showed no hair follicle or only distorted hair follicles were observed in the control samples, in contrast, by the PEE treatment groups showed a fully formed and increased the number of hair follicles up to three times higher than that of control group in terms of the number of hair follicles in nude mouse skin.PEE treated mice the number of BrdU-labeled keratinocytes per anagen follicle increased significantly, especially in the follicular bulbs and outer root sheath compared with the control mice. Moreover, PEE-treated nude mice also exhibited a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled epidermal keratinocyte proliferation.
Anagen;Radish crude saponin;Hair follicle;Athymic nude mice;BrdU
- S. C. Kim, “A Low-Complexity antenna selection algorithm for quadrature spatial modulation systems,” International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication (IJIBC), Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 72-80, January 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7236/IJIBC.2017.9.1.72.
- J. S. Jung, J. Kwon, S. H. Jung, M. W. Lee, V. Mariappan, and J. S. Cha, “Impact of SV40 T antigen on two multiple fission microalgae species Scenedesmus quadricauda and chlorella vulgaris,” International Journal of Advanced Smart Convergence(IJASC), Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 82-88, March 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7236/IJASC.2017.6.1.82. https://doi.org/10.7236/IJASC.2017.6.1.82
- E. G. Ahmed, and H. Y. Seung, “ Impact of SV40 T antigen on two multiple fission microalgae species scenedesmus quadricauda and chlorella vulgaris,” International Journal of advanced smart convergence(IJASC), Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 48-63, June 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7236/IJASC.2018.7.1.7.
- H. J. Jeon, J. Hafeez, A. Hamacher, S. Lee, and S. C. Kwon, “ A study on the quality of photometric scanning under variable illumination conditions,” International Journal of advanced smart convergence(IJASC), Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 88-95, June 2017. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7236/IJASC.2017.6.4.13.
- M. H. Hardy, “The secret life of the hair follicle,” Trends in Genetics, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 55-61, February1992. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9525(92)90350-D. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9525(92)90044-5
- R. Paus, "Control of the hair cycle and hair diseases as cycling disorders," Curr Opin Dermatol, Vol. 3, pp. 248-258, 1996.
- R. Paus, "Principles of hair cycle control," J Dermatol, Vol. 25, No. (12), pp. 793-802, December 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.1998.tb02507.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.1998.tb02507.x
- S. P. Flanagan, 'Nude' a new hairless gene with pleiotropic effects in the mouse," Genet Res, Vol. 8, pp. 295-309, December 1966. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300010168. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016672300010168
- M. Nehls, D. Pfeifer, M. Schorpp, H. Hedrich, T. Boehm, "New member of the winged-helix protein family disrupted in mouse and rat nude mutations," Nature, Vol. 372, No. 6501, pp. 103-107, November 1994. DOI: https:doi.org/10.1038/37210390. https://doi.org/10.1038/372103a0
- Y. Takahashi, A. Shimizu, T. Sakai, Y. Endo, N. Osawa, H. Shisa, T. Honjo, “Mapping of the nu gene using congenic nude strains and in situ hybridization,” J Exp Med, Vol. 175, No. 3, pp. 873-876, March 1992. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.175.3.873
- L. G. Byrd, “Regional localization of the nu mutation on mouse chromosome 11,” Immunogenetics, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 157-159, January 1993.
- J. A. Segre, J. L. Nemhauser, B. A. Taylor, J. H. Nadea, E. S. Lander, "Positional cloning of the nude locus: Genetic, physical, and transcriptional maps of the region and mutations in the mouse and rat," Genomics, Vol. 28, No. (3), pp. 549-559, 1995. DOI: https:doi.org/10.1006/geno.1995.1187. https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.1995.1187
- K. Schuddekopf, M. Schorpp, T. Boehm, “The whn transcription factor encoded by the nude locus contains an evolutionarily conserved and functionally indispensible activation domain,” Proc Natl Acad Sci, Vol. 93, No. 18, pp. 9661-9664, September 1996. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.18.9661
- J. Frank, C. Pignata, A. A. Panteleyev, D. M. Prowse, H. Baden, L. Weiner, L. Gaetanjello, W. Ahmad, P. B. Csehaimi-Friedman, V. M. Aita, H. Vyttendaele, D. Gordon, J. Ott, J. L. Brissette, A. M. Christian, "Exposing the human nude phenotype," Nature, Vol. 398, No. 6727, pp. 473-474, April 1999. DOI: https:doi.org//10.1038/18997. https://doi.org/10.1038/18997
- E. M. Pantelouris, “Athymic development in the mouse,” Differentiation, Vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 437-450, December 1973. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-0436.1973.tb00143.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-0436.1973.tb00143.x
- T. Schlake, M. Schorpp, A. Maul-Pavicic, A. M. Malashenko, T. Boehm, “Forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor Whn regulates hair keratin gene expression: molecular analysis of the nude skin phenotype,” Dev Dyn, Vol. 217, No. 4, pp. 368-376, April 2000. DOI: https://10.1002(SICI)1097-0177(2004)217:4<368:AID-DVDY4> 3.0.C0.2-Z. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200004)217:4<368::AID-DVDY4>3.0.CO;2-Z
- P. Kopf-Maier, V. F. Mboneko, H. J. Merker, "Nude Mice Are Not Hairless. A Morphological Study," Acta Ana,t Vol. 139, No. 2, pp. 178-190, February 1990. https://doi.org/10.1159/000146996
- R. Paus, S. Muller-Rover, C. Van Der Veen, M. Maurer, S. Eichmuller, Ling G, et al.: "A comprehensive guide for the recognition and classification of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis," J Invest Dermatol, Vol. 113, No. 4, pp. 523-532, October 1999. DOI: https://doi.org.//10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00740.x. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00740.x
- Gafter-Gvili A, Sredni B, Gal R, Gafter U, Kalechman Y: Cyclosporin A-induced hair growth in mice is associated with inhibition of calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT in follicular keratinocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, Vol. 284, pp. 1593-1603, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00537.2002
- S. Watanabe, A. Mochizuki, K. Wagatsuma, M. Kobayashi, Y. Kawa, H. Takahashi, “Hair growth on nude mice due to cyclosporin A,” J Dermatol, Vol. 18, No. 12, pp. 714-719, December 1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.1991. tb03162.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.1991.tb03162.x
- M. Sawada, N. Terada, H. Taniguchi, R. Tateishi, Y. Mori, “Cyclosporin A stimulates hair growth in nude mice,” Lab Invest, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 684-686, July 1987.
- Y. Hozumi, T. Imaizumi, S. Kondo, "Effect of cyclosporin on hair-existing area of nude mice," J Dermatol Sci, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. S33-S38, July 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0923-1811(94)90033-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0923-1811(94)90033-7
- A. E. Buhl, D. J. Waldon, B.F. Miller, M. N. Brunden, “Differences in activity of minoxidil and cyclosporin A on hair growth in nude and normal mice. Comparisons of in vivo and in vitro studies,” Lab Invest, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 104-107, February 1990.
- D. M, Danilenko, B. D. Ring, D. Yanagihara, W. Benson, B. Wiemann, CO. Starnes, G. F. Piere, “Keratinocyte growth factor is an important endogenous mediator of hair follicle growth, development, and differentiation. Normalization of the nu/nu follicular differentiation defect and amelioration of chemotherapy induced alopecia,” Am J Pathol, Vol. 147, No. 1, pp. 145-154, July 1995.
- B. Sredni, R. Gal, I. J. Cohen, J. E. Dazard, D. Givol, U. Gafter, B. Motro, S. Eliyahu, M. Albeck, H. M. Lander, Y. Kalechman, "Hair growth induction by the Tellurium immunomodulator AS101: association with delayed terminal differentiation of follicular keratinocytes and ras-dependent up-regulation of KGF expression," FASEB J, Vol. 18: pp. 400-402, February 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0552fje. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0552fje
- G. G. Krueger, D. A. Chambers, J. Shelby, "Epidermal proliferation of nude mouse skin, pig skin and pig skin grafts," J Exp Med, Vol. 152, No. 5, pp. 1329-1339, November 1980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.152.5.1329. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.152.5.1329
- M. Sawada, K. Hayakawa, H. Nishiura, Y. Matsui, S. Tanabe, “Human yolk sac tumor of the ovary serially heterotransplanted in nude mice,” Gynecol Oncol, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 29-43, February 1981. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1016 /0090-8258(81)9005-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-8258(81)90005-6
- L. Shultz, “Immunological mutants of the mouse,” Am J Anat, Vol. 191, No. 3, pp. 303-311, July 1991. DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001910310. https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001910310
- F. Benavides, M. F. Starost, M. Flores, I. B. Gimenez-Conti, J. L. Guenet, C. J. Conti, “Impaired hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling with abnormal epidermal differentiation in nackt mice, a cathepsin L-deficient mutation,” Am J Pathol, Vol. 161, No. 2, pp. 693-703, August 2002. DOI: https:doi.org/10.1016/S0002-94401(10)64225-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64225-3
- V. D. Thakur, S. A. Mengi, "Neuropharmacological profile of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk," J Ethnopharmacol, Vol. 102, NO.1, pp. 23-31, October, 2005. DOI: https:doi.org./10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.037