Figure 1. The changes in the body weight.
Figure 2. The Change of food intake and food efficiency ratio. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=5).
Figure 3. The Analysis of skin dermobella taken from the dorsal skin of hairless mice after UVB-irradiation. Effects of HRE extract on UVB-induced mean depth of skin wrinkle. Values are means±S.E.M. for 5 mice. *Significantly different from UVB/vehicle control treatment (p<0.05). **Significantly different from UVB/vehicle control treatment (p<0.01).***Significantly different from UVB/vehicle control treatment (p<0.001). ## : p<0.01, ### :p<0.001 compared with normal group.
Figure 4. The Effects of HRE extract on MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA gene expression in animal skins exposed to UVB. 5 weeks after the initiation of UVB irradiation(the stage of hyperpigmen- tation); The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA levels in each sample wasanalyzed by real-time PCR and the relative quanyitatives (RQ) of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA was normalized to the quantity of GAPDH. The amount of SYBR Green was measured at theend of each cycle. The cycle number at which the emission intensity of the sample risesabove the baseline is referred as to the RQ (relative quantitative) and is proportional to thetarget concentration. Real time PCR was performed in duplicate and analyzed by a Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-Time PCR system. Values are expressed as means±S.E. fromtwo-independent experiments(* p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001). ### : p<0.001 compared with normal group.
Figure 5. Effects of Radish extract on Melanogenesis in Skin Damage Induced Conditional Model by UVB Irradiation. In order to confirm the whitening efficacy of HRE, the difference in the formation of melanin at 1st , 3rd , and 5th weeks of UVB irradiation was examined bydividing the dorsal skin of HRM-2 mice into left (untreated) and right (treated) sides. Images were taken with digital camera as described in material and methods section. (A) Nosignificant reduction was found in the melanin production in any groups in 1st week. (B) Minor reduction was found in the melanin production in HRE group in 3rd week. (C) Significant reduction was found in the melanin production in both HRE groups in 5th week .Values in bar graphs are ± SEM from three -independent experiments. *** p<0.001 and**p<0.05 when compared with UVB control. HRM-2 N= normal mice, UVB-C= HRM-2 micecontrol (exposed to UVB).
Figure 6. Effects of Radish extract on epithelial thickness and collagen fiber changes in HRM-2 mice UVB irradiated mice. To evaluate the effects of KRG on epidermal thickness andamount of collagen fibers, HRM-2 mice were irradiated with UVB to induce photo aging for 5 weeks along with positive control and KRG administration and application. After terminationof 5 weeks, skin tissues were stained with H & E to measure epithelial thickness using themicroscope as given in materials and methods section. (A&B) Significant reduction wasfound in the epidermal thickness of KRG treated groups. Values in bar graphs are ± SEM from three -independent experiments. *** p<0.001 and **p<0.05 when compared with UVBcontrol. (C) The intensity of M-T staining was decreased in the UVB-control group compared to the normal group suggesting that collagen fiber degradation progressed and wrinkle formation accelerated. However, the amount of collagen fibers in HRE and positive control group were increased indicating that HRE reduced the amount of collagen degradation.
Table 1. Experimental design
Table 2. RT PCR