The Current State and Tasks of Citizen Science in Korea

한국 시민과학의 현황과 과제

  • 박진희 (동국대학교 다르마칼리지)
  • Received : 2018.06.17
  • Accepted : 2018.07.23
  • Published : 2018.07.31

Abstract

The projects of citizen science which is originated from citizen data collecting action driven by governmental institutes and science associations have been implemented with different form of collaboration with scientists. The themes of citizen science has extended from the ecology to astronomy, distributed computing, and particle physics. Citizen science could contribute to the advancement of science through cost-effective science research based on citizen volunteer data collecting. In addition, citizen science enhance the public understanding of science by increasing knowledge of citizen participants. The community-led citizen science projects could raise public awareness of environmental problems and promote the participation in environmental problem-solving. Citizen science projects based on local tacit knowledge can be of benefit to the local environmental policy decision making and implementation of policy. These social values of citizen science make many countries develop promoting policies of citizen science. The korean government also has introduced some citizen science projects. However there are some obstacles, such as low participation of citizen and scientists in projects which the government has to overcome in order to promote citizen science. It is important that scientists could recognize values of citizen science through the successful government driven citizen science projects and the evaluation tool of scientific career could be modified in order to promote scientist's participation. The project management should be well planned to intensify citizen participation. The government should prepare open data policy which could support a data reliability of the community-led monitoring projects. It is also desirable that a citizen science network could be made with the purpose of sharing best practices of citizen science.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

References

  1. 경향신문(2015. 4.19), "천적' 피해 사람들 근처로... 똑똑한 제비들, 시장을 좋아해 (http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201504192148215&code=610103, 2018년 5월 12일 접속)
  2. 김윤정 ․ 이현우 (2016), 시민과학의 자연환경조사 적용방안 연구. 한국환경정책평가연구원.
  3. 대산지방해양수산청(2016), 2016년 해양보호구역 시민모니터링(서천 갯벌습지보호지역), 최종보고서.
  4. 문화일보(2005.5.8.), 회사원 등 보통시민들 ʻ생태조사 모임ʼ (http://www.munhwa.com/news/view.html?no=20050804010109270780041&mobile=false, 2018년 5월 12일 접속)
  5. 시민과학센터 (2011), 시민의 과학, 서울:사이언스북스.
  6. 앨런어윈/김명진. 김병수. 김병윤 옮김 (2011), 시민과학, 서울: 당대.
  7. 육근형, 남정호, 최지연, 최희정 (2005), 우리나라 해양보호구역 관리의 문제점과 정책방향, 월간 해양수산, 통권 249호, pp.63- 83.
  8. 한국경제 (2018.4.4.), 우주관측자료 모두 공개...ʻ시민과학 프로젝트ʼ 추진하겠다, (http://news.hankyung.com/article/2018040451151, 2018년 5월 12일 접속)
  9. 환경부 (2015.4.14.), 우리나라 생물다양성, 같이 찾아 봐요, 보도자료.
  10. 헤럴드경제 (2018.5.9.), 서울시 ʻ제비야 돌아와!ʼ 프로젝트로 제비 늘어나 (http://biz.heraldcorp.com/view.php?ud=20180509000071, 2018년 5월 12일 접속)
  11. Ceccaroni, L., Pera, J. (2017), Analyzing the Role of Citizen Science in Modern Research. Hershey: IGI Global
  12. Conrad, C.C. & Hilichey, K.G. (2011), "A review of citizen science and community-based environmental monitoring: issues and opportunities", Environ Monit Assess, Vol. 176, pp.273-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1582-5
  13. Cooper, C., Shirk, J., Zuckerberg, B. (2014), "The Invisible Prevalence of Citizen Science in Global Research: Migratory Birds and Climate Change.", PLoS ONE 9(9): e106508. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106508. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106508
  14. Cooper, C. (2016), Citizen Science: How Ordinary people are Changing the Face of Discovery, New York: The Overlook Press.
  15. Corburn, J. (2005), Street Science: community knowledge and environmental health justice, The MIT Press.
  16. Dickinson, J. L. et al., (2012), "The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement", Front Ecol Environ, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp.291-297. https://doi.org/10.1890/110236
  17. Dickinson, J.L., Bonney, R. (2012), Citizen Science. Public Participation in Environmental Research. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates.
  18. EC (2013), Environmental Citizen Science. In-Depth Report. (http://ex.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/IR9_en.pdf, 2018년 5월 13일 접속)
  19. Hadj-Hammou, J., Loiselle, S., Ophof, D., Thornhill, I. (2017), "Getting the full picture: Assessing the complementarity of citizen science and agency monitoring dataʼ (https://doi.org/10.137/journal.pone.0188507, 2018년 5월 10일 접속)
  20. Haklay, M. (2013), "Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information: overview and typology of participationʼ. in Sui, D., Elwood, S. & Goodchild, M. eds. Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Theory and Practice.
  21. Haklay, M. (2015), Citizen Science and Policy: A European Perspective. (https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/Citizen_Science_Policy_European_Perspective_Haklay.pdf, 2018년 5월13일 접속)
  22. Horst, Maja & Irwin, Alan (2010), "Nations at ease with radical knowledge", Social Studies of Science, Vol.40, No.1, 105-126 https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312709341500
  23. Kleinmann, Daniel L.,Delborne,Jason A. and Anderson, Ashley A. (2009), "Engaging citizens: The high cost of citizen participation in high technology", in Public Understanding Science, October, pp.1-20.
  24. Kullenberg, C. & Kasperowski, D. (2016), "What Is Citizen Science?: A Scientometric Meta-Analysisʼ. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0147152. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147152. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147152
  25. Macey GP., et al (2014), "Air concentrations of volatile compounds near oil and gas production: a community-based exploratory study", (https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1476-069X-13-82pmid:25355625, 2018년 5월 12일 접속)
  26. Meyer, E.T., Schroeder, R. (2015), Knowledge Machines. Digital Transformations of the Sciences and Humanities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  27. Mitchell, N. et al.(2017), "Benefits and challenges of incorporating citizen science into university education", (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186285, 2018년 5월 13일 접속)
  28. Pocock, MJO, Tweddle JC, Savaga J, Robinson LD, Roy HE (2017), "The diversity and evolution of ecological and environmental citizen scienceʼ. PLoS ONE, 12(4) (http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172579, 2018년 5월 10일 접속) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172579
  29. Public Lab (2015), The Grassroots Mapping Forum (https://publiclab.org, 2018년 5월 12일 접속)
  30. Ravetz, J. 1999. "What is Post-Normal Science". Futures, 31. 647-653. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-3287(99)00024-5
  31. Riesch, H.&Potter, C. (2013), "Citizen science as seen by scientists: Methodologocal, epistemological and ethical dimensions", Public Understanding of Science. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256189123, 2018년 5월 10일 접속)
  32. Schrier, K. (2016), Knowledge Games. How playing games can solve problems, create insight, and make change. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  33. UK EOF (2012), Understanding Citizen Science and Environmental Monitoring. Final Report. (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/20679/1/N020679 CR.pdf, 2018년 5월13일 접속).
  34. Wiggins, A., Crowston, K. (2011), "From Conservation to Crowdsourcing: A Typology of Citizen Science", Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 1 - 10. 10.1109/HICSS.2011. 207. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication, 2018년 5월 13일 접속)
  35. Wynn, J. (2017), Citizen Science in The Digital Age: Rhetoric, Science, and Public Engagement, Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.
  36. Wynne, B. (2007), "Public Participation in Science and Technology: Performing and Obscuring a Political-Conceptual Category Mistake", in East Asian Science and Society: an International Journal, No.1, pp.99-110.