The Effect of Temporal Distance on Risk Perception and Behavioral Intention : Based on Email Phishing

시간적 거리가 위험지각 및 행동의도에 미치는 영향 : 이메일 피싱을 중심으로

  • Jung, Koeun (Department of Psychology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Min, Yoonki (Department of Psychology, Chungnam National University)
  • 정고은 (충남대학교 사회과학대학 심리학과) ;
  • 민윤기 (충남대학교 사회과학대학 심리학과)
  • Received : 2018.09.07
  • Accepted : 2018.10.17
  • Published : 2018.10.31


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of psychological distance on risk perception and intention to behavior that directly cause risk. In each study, participants were informed about email phishing at each temporal frame. After that assessed their perceived risk (study 1), or indicated their intention to behaviour to protect personal information (study 2). As results, when the temporal distance is close, the risk of email-phishing is perceived as a high level despite the same information except for the temporal frame where the information was presented. Further, it was confirmed that social distance as another dimension of psychological distance interacts with temporal distance. In addition, when an e-mail requests personal information, the intention to behavior is lower than when it is not, and this difference is greater in the 'day' frame in which the temporal distance is close. These results support the construal level theory, suggesting that perception of the risk and the intentions of the behavior causing the risk may be different depending on temporal distance.


Supported by : 정보통신기술진흥센터


  1. Aaron, G., Rasmussen, R. (2010). Global phishing survey: trends and domain name use in 2H2009, Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG), Lexington, MA.
  2. Ariely, D., Zakay, D. (2001). A timely account of the role of duration in decision making, Acta Psychologica, 108(2), 187-207.
  3. Atkins, B., Huang, W. (2013). A study of social engineering in online frauds, Open Journal of Social Sciences, 1(03), 23-32.
  4. Chandran, S., Menon, G. (2004). When a day means more than a year: effects of temporal framing on judgments of health risk, Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 375-389.
  5. Fujita, K., Henderson, M., Eng, J., Trope, Y., Liberman, N. (2006). Spatial distance and mental construal of social events, Psychological Science, 17, 278-282.
  6. Fukukura, J., Ferguson, M. J., Fujita, K. (2013). Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 658-665.
  7. Furnell, S. (2013). Still on the hook: the persistent problem of phishing, Computer Fraud & Security, 2013(10), 7-12.
  8. Gowtham, R., Krishnamurthi, I. (2014). A comprehensive and efficacious architecture for detecting phishing webpages, Computers & Security, 40, 23-37.
  9. Han, G. H., Min, Y. K. (2016). The effects of congruency conditions of target and distractor on reaction time of sexual offenders, Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 18(4), 2107-2118. (in Korean).
  10. Henderson, M. D., Fujita, K., Trope, Y., Liberman, N. (2006). Transcending the "here": The effect of spatial distance on social judgment, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 845-856.
  11. Karniol, R., Michael, R. (1996). The motivational impact of temporal focus: thinking about the future and the past, Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 539-620.
  12. Kim, K. W. (2010). Effects of trait anxiety and perceived temporal distance on preference: based on construal level theory, The Korean Journal of Psychology : General, 29(4), 659-678. (in Korean).
  13. Kim, J. H., Kim, T. H., Park, I. H. (2010). Effective persuasion message type depending on when people get the results of preventive behavior: based on construal level theory, The Korean Journal of Consumer and Advertizing Psychology, 11(3), 451-474. (in Korean).
  14. Lee, J. (2003). A driving stimulation study for the effects of divided attention on driving performance: Comparison of young and old drivers, Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 5, 705-718. (in Korean).
  15. Lee, J. (2004). Perceptual, cognitive, and environmental influences on driver's speed control, Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 6, 1449-1468. (in Korean).
  16. Lee, H. K., Kim, Y. A. (2018) The relations among psychosocial stress, impulsivity and insomnia in inpatients with alcohol dependence, Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 20(3), 1551-1564. (in Korean).
  17. Libby, L. K., Eibach, R. P. (2002). Looking back in time: self-concept change affects visual perspective in autobiographical memory, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(2), 167-179.
  18. Liberman, N., Trope, Y., Stephan, E. (2007). Psychological distance, Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, 2, 353-383.
  19. Liu, W., Deng, X., Huang, G., Fu, A. Y. (2006). An antiphishing strategy based on visual similarity assessment, IEEE Internet Computing, 10(2), 58-65.
  20. Liviatan, I., Trope, Y., Liberman, N. (2008). Interpersonal similarity as a social distance of dimension: implications for perception of others' actions, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1256-1269.
  21. Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., Milne, A. B. (1998). Saying no to unwanted thoughts: self-focus and the regulation of mental life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 578-589.
  22. Menon, G., Block, L. G., Ramanathan, S. (2002). We're at as much risk as we are led to believe: effects of message cues on judgments of health risk, Journal of Consumer Research, 28(4), 533-549.
  23. Min, Y. K., Kim, C., Chung, C. W. (2006). The age-related in working memory and moderate effects of state anxiety and cognitive interface, Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, 8(3), 1161-1173. (in Korean).
  24. Moore, T., Clayton, R. (2007). An empirical analysis of the current state of phishing attack and defence, In WEIS.
  25. Muscanell, N. L., Guadagno, R. E., Murphy, S. (2014). Weapons of influence misused: a social influence analysis of why people fall prey to internet scams, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(7), 388-396.
  26. Parsons, K., McCormac, A., Pattinson, M., Butavicius, M., Jerram, C. (2015). The design of phishing studies: challenges for researchers, Computers & Security, 52, 194-206.
  27. Peirce, J. W. (2007). PsychoPy - Psychophysics software in Python, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 162(1-2), 8-13.
  28. Raghubir, P., Menon, G. (1998). AIDS and me, never the twain shall meet: The effects of information accessibility on judgments of risk and advertising effectiveness, Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 52-63.
  29. Ramanathan, V., Wechsler, H. (2013). Phishing detection and impersonated entity discovery using conditional random field and latent Dirichlet allocation, Computers & Security, 34, 123-139.
  30. Semin, G. R., Fiedler, K. (1988). The cognitive functions of linguistic categories in describing persons: Social cognition and language, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 558-568.
  31. Semin, G. R., Fiedler, K. (1989). Relocating attributional phenomena within a language cognition interface: The case of actors' and observers' perspectives, European Journal of Social Psychology, 19(6), 491-508.
  32. Tam, L., Glassman, M., Vandenwauver, M. (2010). The psychology of password management: a tradeoff between security and convenience, Behaviour & Information Technology, 29(3), 233-244.
  33. Trope, Y., Liberman, N. (2000). Temporal construal and time-dependent changes in preference, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 876-889.
  34. Trope, Y., Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal, Psychological Review, 110, 403-421.
  35. Trope, Y., Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance, Psychological Review, 117(2), 440-463.
  36. Vishwanath, A., Herath, T., Chen, R., Wang, J., Rao, H. R. (2011). Why do people get phished? testing individual differences in phishing vulnerability within an integrated, information processing model, Decision Support Systems, 51(3), 576-586.
  37. Wakslak, C. J., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., Alony, R. (2006). Seeing the forest when entry is unlikely: probability and the mental representation of events, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 641-653.
  38. Wang, J., Chen, R., Herath, T., Rao, H. R. (2009). Visual e-mail authentication and identification services: an investigation of the effects on e-mail use, Decision Support Systems, 48(1), 92-102.
  39. Wang, J., Herath, T., Chen, R., Vishwanath, A., Rao, H. R. (2012). Research article phishing susceptibility: an investigation into the processing of a targeted spear phishing email, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 55(4), 345-362.
  40. Wang, J., Li, Y., Rao, H. R. (2016). Overconfidence in phishing email detection, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(11), 759-783.
  41. Yi, J. (2015). Differences of the alternative production in the work-family multiple role conflict according to the psychological distance: based on the construal level theory, Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, 20(4), 659-674. (in Korean).