DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Gliricidia leaf meal and multi-enzyme in rabbits diet: effect on performance, blood indices, serum metabolites and antioxidant status

  • Oloruntola, Olugbenga David (Animal Science Department, Adekunle Ajasin University) ;
  • Agbede, Johnson Oluwasola (Animal Production and Health Department, The Federal University of Technology) ;
  • Ayodele, Simeon Olugbenga (Department of Agricultural Technology, The Federal Polytechnic) ;
  • Ayedun, Eyanlola Soladoye (Department of Agricultural Technology, The Federal Polytechnic) ;
  • Daramola, Olajumoke Temidayo (Department of Agricultural Technology, The Federal Polytechnic) ;
  • Oloruntola, Deborah Adebukola (Microbiology Department, The Federal University of Technology)
  • Received : 2017.11.05
  • Accepted : 2018.09.27
  • Published : 2018.10.31

Abstract

Background: Following the ban on the importation of import-dependent fed ingredients in most developing countries, the need to look inward for local content is now compelling. Thus, leaf meals that have phytogenic additive potentials are envisaged will be a viable feed ingredient in rabbit diets. Methods: The effect of dietary inclusion of gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) with or without multi-enzyme (E) supplementation in rabbits was investigated using ninety-six 35-day old rabbits of crossbreed (Newzealand and Chinchilla). One basal diet that met the requirements of growing rabbit was formulated (Diet 1). Thereafter, another two diets were formulated to contain 15% GLM and 15% GLM plus multi-enzyme at 1 g/kg and designated as diets 2 and 3 respectively. The rabbits were randomly distributed into the 3 diets (32 rabbits/treatment; 4 rabbits/replicate) and fed their respective experimental diets for 8 weeks. Results: The body weight and daily weight gain of the rabbits fed on GLM free diet and those on GLM-based diets (diets 1 and 2) were similar at finishing period of 63-91 day but have lower (P < 0.01) values than those rabbits fed GLM + E based diet (diet 3) at finishing period (63-91 days) and whole fattening period (35-91 days). The apparent dry matter and crude protein digestibility of rabbits fed control diet and those fed 15% GLM based diet were lower (P < 0.05) than those fed 15% GLM + E-based diet. Triglycerides concentration of rabbits fed 15% GLM-based diet without enzyme addition were lower (P < 0.05) than those observed for rabbits on the rest test diets. Cholesterol and Low-Density Lipoprotein levels of rabbits fed 15% GLM and 15% GLM + E-based diets were lower (P < 0.05) than those fed the GLM free diet. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of rabbits fed the GLM free diet (diet 1) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those fed the 15%GLM and 15% GLM + E-based diets. Conclusion: Dietary inclusion of GLM at 15% of the diet did not have a negative effect on the rabbits postweaning period (35-63 days) but will require multi-enzyme supplementation to enhance growth indices at finishing period (63-91 day) without precipitating negative effect on the rabbits' health status.

Keywords

Leaf meals;Rabbits;Exo-enzyme;Performance;Health status

References

  1. Oloruntola OD, Daramola OT, Omoniyi SO. Effect of forages on performance, carcass cuts and haematological profile of weaner rabbits. Arch Zootec. 2015;64(245):87-92. https://doi.org/10.21071/az.v64i245.381
  2. Dhama K, Latheef SK, Manin S, Samad HA, Karthik K, Tiwari R, Khan RU, Alagawany M, Farag MR, Alam GM, Laudadio V, Vincenzo T. Multiple beneficial application and modes of action of herbs in poultry health and production. A review. Int J Pharmacol. 2015;11(3):152-76. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2015.152.176
  3. Valenzuela-Grijalva NV, Pinelli-Saavedra A, Muhlia-Almazan A, Dominguez-Diaz D, Gonzalez-Rios H. Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production. J Anim Sci Tech. 2017;59:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-9
  4. Amata IA. The effect of feeding Gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) on the haematological, serological and carcass characteristics of weaned rabbits in the tropics. Agric Biol J North America. 2010;1(5):1057-60. https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.5.1057.1060
  5. Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO, Agbede JO, Asaniyan EK. Performance and apparent digestibility of broiler starter fed diets containing Gliricidia sepium leaf meal. Asian J Bio Life Sci. 2016;5(1):97-102.
  6. Agbede JO, Aletor VA. Evaluation of fish meal replaced with protein concentrate from Glyricidia in diets of broiler-chicks. Int J Poultry Sci. 2003;2(6):421-9. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2003.421.429
  7. Akharaiyi F, Boboye B, Adetuyi FC. Antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts of Gliricidia sepium and Spathodea campanulata. World Appl Sci J. 2012;16(4):523-30.
  8. Kiarie E, Romero LF, Nyachoti CM. The role of added feed enzymes on promoting gut health in swine and poultry. Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26:71-88 https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0954422413000048. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422413000048
  9. Ayodele SO, Oloruntola OD, Agbede JO. Effect of Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and digestibility of rabbits. World Rabbit Sci. 2016;24:201-6. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2016.3933
  10. Falcao-e-Cunha L, Castro-Solla L, Maertens L, Marounek M, Pinheiro V, Freire J, Mour JL. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in rabbit feeding: a review. World Rabbit Sci. 2007;15:127-40.
  11. Onasanya GO, Oke FO, Sanni TM, Muhammad AI. Parameters influencing haematological, serum and bio-chemical references in livestock animals under different management systems. Open J Vet Med. 2015;5:181-9. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2015.58025
  12. El-Katcha MIY, Ismail EY, Soltan MA, El-Naggar MK. Effect of dietary probiotics supplementation on growth performance, immune response, some blood parameters and carcass quality of growing rabbits. Alexandria J Vet Sci. 2011;34:153-69.
  13. Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO, Agbede JO, Oloruntola DA. Effect of feeding broiler chickens with diets containing Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal and enzyme supplementation. Arch Zootec. 2016;65(252):489-98.
  14. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, official methods of analysis 15 edition. Washington DC. 1990:69-88.
  15. Makkar HPS, Goodchild MO. A bioassay for polyphenol (tannin in Vercauteren, J, Cheze, C, Dumon, M. C (Eds), proceeding of the international conference of polyphenols. Polyphenols Comm 1996: 96(1):197-198.
  16. Fernandex-Carmona J, Blas E, Pascual JJ, Maertens L, Gidenne T, Xiccato G, Garcia J. Recommendations and guidelines for applied nutrition experiments in rabbits. World Rabbit Sci. 2003;13:209-28 https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2005.516.
  17. Blasco A, Ouhayoun J, Masoero G. Harmonization of criteria and terminology in rabbit meat research. World Rabbit Sci. 1993;1:3-10 https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.1993.189.
  18. Brunett N, Mathura K, Metivier KS, Holder RB, Brown G, Campbell M. An investigation into haematological and serum chemistry parameters of rabbits in Trinidad. World Rabbit Sci. 2003;14:175-87.
  19. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Sci. 1973;179:588-90. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4073.588
  20. Misra HP, Fridovich I. The univalent reduction of oxygen by flavins and quinines. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:188-92.
  21. Aebi H. Catalase estimation. In: Bergmeyer HV, editor. Methods of enzymatic analysis. New York: Verlag Chemic; 1974. p. 673-84.
  22. EGRAN. Technical note: attempt to harmonize chemical analyses of feeds and faeces for rabbit feed evaluation. World Rabbit Sci. 2001;9(2):57-64.
  23. Al-Harthi MA, El-Deek AA, Attia YA, Bovera F, Qota EM. Effect of different dietary level of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spices supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 2009;50:700-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660903202948
  24. Falcao-e-Cunha L, Reis J, Freire JB, Castro-Solla L. Effect of enzyme addition and source of fibre on growth and fibrolytic activities of growing-finishing rabbits. In: Proceedings of 8th World Rabbit Congress, September 7-10, 2004, Puebla, Mexico, vol. 2004. p. 1532-7.
  25. Bimrew A. Effect of common feed enzymes on nutrient utilization of monogastric animals. Int J Biotech, Molecular Biol Res. 2014;5(4):27-34. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0191
  26. Eiben CS, Gippert T, Godor-Surmann K, Podmaniczky B, Kustos K. Effect of dietary phosphorus reduction and phytase supplementation on growth of rabbits. In Proceedings of 9th World Rabbit Congress. June 10-13, 2008, Verona, Italy, 2008, p. 201.
  27. Bedford MR. Exogenous enzymes in monogastric nutrition. Their current value and future benefits. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 2000;86:1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00155-3
  28. Soetan KO, Oyewole OE. The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds. A review African J Food Sci. 2009;3(9):223-32.
  29. Yilkal T. Important anti-nutritional substances and inherent toxicants of feeds. Food Sci Quality Manag. 2015;36:40-7.
  30. Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO, Agbede JO, Oloruntola DA, Ogunsipe MH, Omoniyi IS. Effect of Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal and enzyme supplementation on growth, haematological, immunostimulatory and serum biochemical response of rabbits. Asian J Bio Life Sci. 2016;5(2):190-5.
  31. Adeyeye SA, Agbede JO, Aletor VA, Oloruntola OD. Processed cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pod husks in rabbit diet: effect on haematological and serum biochemical indices. Asian J Adv Agric Res. 2017;2(4):1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJAAR/2017/36141.
  32. Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO. Pawpaw leaf meal and exo-enzyme in rabbit diet: effect on haematological and serum biochemical indices. Asian J Adv Agric Res. 2017;2(4):1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJAAR/2017/36309.
  33. Peter ML, Susan CEF. Interpretation of laboratory results. Australian Vet Pract. 1999;21(4):188-93.
  34. Gupta S, Mediratta PK, Singh S, Sharma KK, Shukla R. Antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Seed oil Indian J Exp Bio. 2006;44:300-4.
  35. Oboh G, Rocha JBT. Polyphenols in red pepper [Capsicum annuum var. aviculare (Tepin)] and their protective effect on some pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver. Eur Food Res Tech. 2007;225:239-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0410-1
  36. Afolabi AB, Oloyede OI. Antioxidant properties of the extracts of Talinum triangulare and its effect on antioxidant enzymes in tissue homogenate of Swiss albino rat. Toxicol Int. 2014;21(3):307-13. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.155377. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.155377