Perception on Career Barriers among Cyber University Students: Focusing on Demographic Characteristics

사이버대학생의 진로장벽 지각 -배경변인별 차이를 중심으로-

  • Lee, Ji Hye (Department of Psychology of Counseling, Sejong Cyber University) ;
  • Gwak, Yoon Jung (Department of Psychology of Counseling, Sejong Cyber University)
  • 이지혜 (세종사이버대학교 상담심리학과) ;
  • 곽윤정 (세종사이버대학교 상담심리학과)
  • Received : 2018.07.04
  • Accepted : 2018.10.05
  • Published : 2018.10.31


The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze differences of perceived career barriers based on demographic characteristics of cyber university students. The results of this study will provide a valuable basis for guiding adult learners in their career development. Subjects included 937 adult learners at cyber universities in Seoul, Korea, aged 20 and above. Results were as follows: The level of career barriers perceived by females aged 20-29 who were unemployed and single were higher than that of males aged 30 to 59 who were employed and married. Female students were higher in 'anxiety of future', 'lack of interest', 'lack of job information', 'interpersonal difficulty'. The only component in which subjects aged 50-59 perceived higher than other age groups was 'conflict with important people'. There was no significant differences by grade. These results imply that the perception of the career barriers of adult learners should be considered in customizing career development programs and career counselling.


Cyber University;Career barriers;Demographic characteristics;Career Development;Adult-learner


  1. Korea Employment Information Service, Statistic Research paper, "Occupational Information",
  2. YonhapNews Agency, Article, "S. Korea's jobless rate rises steadily amid dip in OECD average",
  3. S. Y. Choi, "A Study on the Antecedents of Social Work Students' Career Decision Efficacy: Focusing on the Effects of Career Barries and Satisfaction from Major", Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology, Vol.6, No.10, pp.345-353, 2016. DOI:
  4. S. H. Park, J. H. Ahn, "A Study on the Difference of Career Barriers, Career Attitude Maturity, and Career Competencies based on Gender, Grade, and Fields of Major of Undergraduate students in the age of Convergence", Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol.14, No.8, pp.69-80, 2016. DOI:
  5. E. R. Sohn, K. H. Kim, "The factors of career barriers perceived by female college students", Korean Journal Of Counseling And Psychotherapy, Vol.14, No.1, pp.121-139, 2002.
  6. E. Y. Kim, "A study for the development and validation of the Korean college students' career barrier inventory", Ph.D Dissertation, Ewha Womans University, 2001.
  7. S. J. Kim, "The influence of career barriers, hope and career decision-making self-efficacy on the career preparation behavior of college students," Ph..D Dissertation, Hongik University, 2005.
  8. A. L. Jung, S. H. You, N. A. Rue, "Influence of Career Barriers and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy on College Adjustment of Junior College Students", Korean Journal of Youth Studies, Vol.12, No.18, pp.535-558, 2011.
  9. K. H. Lim, "The Mediating Effects of Self-encouragement on the Relationship between Career Barriers and Career Attitude Maturity of College Students", The Journal of Career Education Research, Vol.22, No.3, pp.101-119, 2009.
  10. H. J. Cho, "The Relationship among Cognitive Style, Career Decision-making Self-Efficacy and Career Barrier", The Journal of Career Education Research, Vol.6, No.19, pp.93-110, 2006
  11. S. H. Lee, "The Effects of Psychological career barriers on Career Preparation Behavior and Career Resilience of College Students", Korean Association For Learner-Centered Curriculum And Instruction, Vol.17, No.19, pp.23-44, 2017. DOI:
  12. S. H. Choi, "The influence of career barriers, career aspiration and career attitude maturity on the career preparation behavior perceived by university students", Ph.D Dissertation, Wonkwang University, 2007.
  13. K. H. Back, K. H. You, "The effect of career barrier and major satisfaction on the career preparation behavior in the group of security major college students", Korea Security Secure Review, Vol.29, pp.117-137, 2011.
  14. J. K. Lee, "Effect of the career barriers and occupational Values to the career self-efficacy of the students of agriculture specialized high schools", The Journal of Career Education Research, Vol.22, No.1, pp.127-143, 2009.
  15. J. E. Rue, "A Study on the Perception, Regarding Career Barriers and the Career Compromise Types of Female College Students in Science &Engineering Majors", The Journal of Career Education Research, Vol.29, No.2, pp.145-166, 2016.
  16. D. K. Lee, T. K. Na, "Perception on Career Barriers among Undergraduate Students Majoring in Foodservice: Focusing on Gender, Grade and Income Level by School Type", Korea Tourism Research, Vol.27, No.5, pp.119-135, 2013.
  17. K. J. Yon, J. W. Yang, J. S. Lee, A. K. Jang, J. K. Kim, "Differences in perceived career barriers by gender and affiliation(undergraduate, graduate): A study focusing on a science and engineering university", The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology, Vol.18, No.2, pp.295-316, 2013. DOI:
  18. J. S. Lim, I. O. Chang, "A Structural Analysis among Perceived Career Barriers, Career Certainty, and Career Preparation Behavior of Female Junior College Students", Journal of Future Oriented Youth Society, Vol.12, No.1, pp.49-67, 2015.
  19. J. J. Kim, H. Y. Kwon, "An Analysis of the Relationship among Career Barrier, Career Self-efficacy, and School Adjustment of the Adolescents", The Korean Journal of East West Science, Vol.18, No.1, pp.67-82, 2015.
  20. Y. A. Cho, "An Impact of Career Barrier on Career Decision Level among College Students Majoring in Secretarial Science", Journal of Secretarial Studies, Vol.16, No.1, pp.107-127, 2007.
  21. S. M. Kang, "The Effects of Perceived Career Barriers and Career Calling on their Career Decision-Making of Art College Students", Master's Thesis, Korea University of Technology Education, 2016.
  22. H. H. Kang, "Effect of Career barrier on Polytechnics Students' Career Preparation Behavior : The Mediating Effects of Career Resilience", The Journal of Career Education Research, Vol.3, No.28, pp.59-78, 2015.
  23. S. H. You, "The Moderating Effects of Job Search Self-Esteem on the Relationship between Career Barrier and Employment Preparation Behavior of College Students Majoring in Secretarial Science", Journal of Secretarial Studies, Vol.20, No.3, pp.97-116, 2011.
  24. Y. J. Gwak, J. H. Lee, "The effect of educational participatory motivation and life satisfaction on major satisfaction among Cyber University students", Journal of Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol.19, No.5, pp.285-295, 2018. DOI:
  25. G. W. Lee, "The Effects of Psychological and Environmental Career Barriers on Career Preparation Behavior of Engineering Majors Undergraduates: Hope and Career Identity as Mediating Variables", Master's Thesis, Korea University of Technology Education, 2018.
  26. H. K. Kim, "The Mediating Effects of Socal Support and Hope in the Relationship between Psychological and Environmental Career Barriers and Career Preparation Behavior", Master's Thesis, Sookmyung Women's University, 2017.
  27. Y. H. Chang, J. S. Lee, E. S. Sin, "The Relations between Career Barriers and Career Preparation Behavior Perceived by College Students: The Mediating Effect of Subjective Happiness", The Journal of Educational Research, Vol.14, No.3, pp.163-184, 2016.