The relationship between smoking and stroke by general characteristics : using the 6th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

일반적 특성에 따른 흡연과 뇌졸중의 관련성 : 제6기 국민건강영양조사 이용

  • Nam, Younghee (Dept. of Health Administration, Namseoul University) ;
  • Jung, Hyunjung (Dept. of Health Administration, Song-ho University) ;
  • Kim, Yesoon (Dept. of Healthcare and Public Health, National Rehabilitation Center)
  • 남영희 (남서울대학교 보건행정학과) ;
  • 정현정 (송호대학교 보건행정과) ;
  • 김예순 (국립재활원 건강보건연구과)
  • Received : 2018.06.30
  • Accepted : 2018.07.25
  • Published : 2018.07.31


The purpose of the study was to determine the general characteristics that affect strokes caused by smoking, to provide basic data and political grounds for preventing strokes. Data were used from the 6th (2015) of the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Among the study participants were 2,146 smokers and 132 strokers. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 21.0. The findings of the study were as follows: strokes increased the odds ratio 1.7 times(p<0.001) when smoking was performed, and the risk factors for strokes caused by smoking were statistically significant in age(p=0.008, p=0.10), education level(p=0.003, p=0.008), hypertension(p<0.001), and subjective health conditions(p=0.008). Therefore, it is necessary to develop health education contents using smart devices and a consistent national health policy to reduce the occurrence and risk of stroke.


  1. H. W. Chung, S. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, H. J. Lee, “The pilot application and the effects of the smoking prevention program for young children,” Korean Journal of Child Care and Education policy, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 185-208, 2017.
  2. WHO, Report on the global tobacco epidemic 2011: Warning about the dangers of tobacco IDEAS Working Paper Series from RePEc, 2011.
  3. Korea Health Promotion Institute 2017. [Internet]. Available :
  4. V. M. Bhat, J, W. Cole, J. D. Sorkin, M. A. Wozniak, A. M. Malarcher, W. H. Giles, “Dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women,” Journal of Stroke, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 2439-43, 2008.
  5. R. S. Shah, J. W. Cole, “Smoking and stroke: the more you smoke the more you stroke,” Expert review of cardiovascular therapy, Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 917-932, 2010.
  6. J. H. Sim, “Study of cigarette smoking as a risk factor in stroke,” Journal of Inje Medical, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 123-131, 2002.
  7. E. H. Le, S. K. Park, K. P. Ko, I. S. Cho, S. H. Chang, H. R. Shin, “Cigarette smoking and mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) study,” Journal of preventive medicine and public health, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 151-158, 2010.
  8. S. H. Jee, J. K. Lee, I. S. Kim, “Smoking-attributable mortality among Korean adults: 1981-2003,” Korean Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 92-99, 2006.
  9. K. J. Jung, Y. D. Yun, S. J. Baek, S. H. Jee, I. S. Kim, “Smoking-attributable mortality among Korean adults,” Journal of The Korea Society of Health Informatics and Statistics, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 36-48, 2013.
  10. J. O. Lim, H. S. Yang, S. E. Choi, W. N. Kim, “Cigarette smoking and risk of cardiovascular and lung disease in Korea: a cross-sectional survey data analysis,” Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 3131-3140, 2015.
  11. H. C. Dijkerman, M. Ietswaart, M. Johnston, "Does motor imagery training improve hand function in chronic stroke patients? A pilot study." Clinical Rehabilitation, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 538-547, 2004.
  12. The National Statistical Office. Statistics of causes of death 2016. [Internet]. Available :
  13. S. Y. Heo, K. M. Kim, “Effects of task-oriented Robot-assisted therapy for motor function of upper extremities and ADL performance of stroke patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Korean Society of Occupational Therapy, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 1-18, 2017.
  14. National Health Institute Service 2016. [Internet]. Available :
  15. Health Institute Review & Assessment service 2015. [Internet]. Available :
  16. Health Institute Review & Assessment service 2017. [Internet]. Available :
  17. C. A. Trombly, M. V. Radomski, "Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction, 6th ed. Philadelpia," PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.
  18. B. S. Cheong, S. H. Lee, H. S. Yun, S. G. Cho, J. H. Lee, J. C. Seo, D. Y. Choi, D. S. Park, "The clinical study of risk and lifestyle factors in stroke." The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 14-26, 2001.
  19. J. Y. Lee, S. A. Park, B. I. Kim, K. H. Yang, J. S. Yoo, Epidemiology and health promotion, Sumunsa , 2007.
  20. E. Y. Cho, K. H. Song, "A study on BMI, smoking and alcohol intake in cerebrovascular accident patients," Journal of Natural Science, Vol. 18, pp. 96-105, 1999.
  21. J. A. Ambrose, R. S. Barua, “The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update,” Journal of the American college of cardiology, Vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 1731-1737, 2004.
  22. G. A. Colditz, M. J. Stampfer, W. C. Willett, B. Rosner, F. E. Speizer, C. H. Hennekens, "A prospective study of parental history of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in women," Am Journal Epidemiology, Vol. 123, pp. 48-58, 1986.
  23. R. B. D'Agostino, P. A. Wolf, A. J. Belanger, B. William, "Stroke risk profile: Adjustment for antihypertensive medication," American Heart Association, Vol. 25, pp. 40-44, 1994.
  24. L. P Kammersgaard, T. S. Olsen, “Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the copenhagen stroke study,” Journal of Stroke Cerebrovascular Disease, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 187-193, 2006.
  25. D. A. Levine, J. M. Walter, S. Karve, L. E. Skolarus, S. R. Levine, K. A. Mulhorn, “Smoking and mortality in stroke survivors: Can we eliminate the paradox?,” Journal of Stroke Cerebrovascular Disease, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 1282-1290, 2014.
  26. S. P. Ives, P. U. Heuschmann, C. D. Wolfe, J. Redfern, "Patterns of smoking cessation in the first 3years after stroke : The south London stroke register," European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, Vol. 15, pp. 329-335, 2008.
  27. T. H. Park, Y. Ko, S. J. Lee, K. B. Lee, J. Lee, M. Han, “Identifying target risk factors using population attributable risks of ischemic stroke by age and sex,” Journal of Stroke, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 302-311, 2005.
  28. H. Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, P. Zatorski, A. Baranowska, D. Ryglewicz, P. Bienkowski, "Predictors of smoking abstinence after first-ever ischemic stroke: A 3-month follow-up," Journal of Stroke, Vol. 40, pp. 2592-2593, 2009.
  29. WHO. Toolkit for delivering the 5A's and 5R's brief tobacco interventions in primary care, Prevention of noncommunicable diseases (PND), 2014
  30. T. Thom, N. Haase, W. Rosamond, V. J. Howard, J. Rumsfeld, T. Manolio, "Heart disease and stroke statistics-2006 update a report from the American heart association statistics committee and stroke statistics subcommittee," Circulation, Vol. 113, pp. e85-e151, 2006.
  31. J. H. Back, K. T. Sohn, “Effects of mental practice on upper extremity motor function and gait function in acute stroke,” Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 685-695, 2013.
  32. National Stroke Association 2009. Available from:
  33. J. Y. Back, S. E. Jun, “Effects of symptom-based discharge education for stroke patients,” Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 2541-2553, 2012.
  34. S. Y. Mun , Y. M. Yun, T. H. Han, S. E. Lee, H. J. Chang, S. Y. Song, H. C. Kim, "Public awareness of digital healthcare services" Journal of Digital Contents Society, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 621-629, 2017.
  35. H. Y. Choi, H. Kim, “Association between cigarette smoking and stroke based on Korea community health survey,” The Korean Journal of Public Health, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 15-22, 2017.