A Newly Recorded Sea Star of the Genus Luidia (Asteroidea, Paxillosida, Luidiidae) from Jeju Island, Korea, Based on Morphological and Molecular Analysis

  • Lee, Taekjun (Marine Biological Resource Institute, Sahmyook University) ;
  • Shin, Sook (Marine Biological Resource Institute, Sahmyook University)
  • Received : 2018.04.02
  • Accepted : 2018.10.12
  • Published : 2018.10.31


The genus Luidia belongs to the family Luidiidae in the order Paxillosida. It is a common littoral taxon, and the depth range of the Korean fauna is generally 0-100 m. However, specimens of Luidia were collected from Jeju Island in Korea at 150-160 m depth and identified as Luidia sagamina sagamina $D{\ddot{o}}derlein$, 1920. This species is determined by morphological characteristics and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequence analysis. Luidia sagamina sagamina is a very rare sea star in worldwide and it only collected previously from Sagami Bay, Japan, and is newly reported in Korea. Four species of Luidia, including L. s. sagamina, are recorded in the Korean fauna.


Grant : Development of the methods for controlling and managing marine ecological disturbance-causing and harmful organisms (MEDHO)

Supported by : National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST)


  1. Clark AM, 1982. Notes on Atlantic Asteroidea. 2. Luidiidae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 42:157-184.
  2. Clark AM, Downey ME, 1992. Starfishes of the Atlantic. Chapman and Hall Identification Guides, 3. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1-794.
  3. Clark HES, McKnight DG, 2000. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Echinodermata: Asteroidea (sea-stars). Order Paxillosida. Order Notomyotida. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 116: 1-196.
  4. Corstorphine EA, 2010. DNA barcoding of echinoderms: species diversity and patterns of molecular evolution. MSc thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  5. Cortes MP, Chung HM, Pomory CM, 2015. Sediment preference, salinity tolerance and COX-1 genetic differences in two purportive species of Luidia (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 95:551-559.
  6. Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D, 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9:772.
  7. D'yakonov AM, 1968. Sea stars (asteroids) of the USSR seas. [Translation from keys to the fauna of the USSR. No, 34. Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1950]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, pp. 1-152.
  8. Doderlein L, 1920. die Asteriden der Siboga-Expedition. 2. Die Gattung Luidia und ihre Stammesgeschichte. Siboga Expedition, 46:193-291.
  9. Fell HB, 1963. The phylogeny of sea-stars. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 246:381-435.
  10. Fisher WK, 1911. Asteroidea of the North Pacific and adjacent waters. 1. Phanerozonia and Spinulosida. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 76:1-420.
  11. Fisher WK, 1919. Starfishes of the Philippine seas and adjacent waters. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 100: 1-547.
  12. Folmer O, Black M, Hoeh W, Lutz R, Vrijenhoek R, 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3:294-299.
  13. Guindon S, Gascuel O, 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology, 52:696-704.
  14. Hayashi R, 1940. Contributions to the classification of the seastars of Japan. I. Spinulosa. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University, 7:107-204.
  15. Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, deWaard JR, 2003. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceeding of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270:313-321.
  16. Hoareau TB, Boissin E, 2010. Design of phylum-specific hybrid primers for DNA barcoding: addressing the need for efficient COI amplification in the Echinodermata. Molecular Ecology Resources, 10:960-967.
  17. Kim D, Kim M, Shin S, 2017. A newly recorded sea star of the genus Luidia (Asteroidea: Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from the Korea Strait, Korea. Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity, 33:131-135.
  18. Knott KE, Wray GA, 2000. Controversy and consensus in asteroid systematics: new insights to ordinal and familial relationships. American Zoologist, 40:382-392.
  19. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K, 2016. MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33:1870-1874.
  20. Laakmann S, Boos K, Knebelsberger T, Raupach MJ, Neumann H, 2016. Species identification of echinoderms from the North Sea by combining morphology and molecular data. Helgoland Marine Research, 70:1-18.
  21. Layton KKS, Corstorphine EA, Hebert PDN, 2016. Exploring Canadian echinoderm diversity through DNA barcodes. PLoS ONE, 11:e0166118.
  22. Madsen FJ, 1950. The echinoderms collected by the Atlantide Expedition 1945-46. 1. Asteroidea. Atlantide Reports, 1: 167-222.
  23. Mah CL, 2018. World Asteroidea database [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species, Accessed 9 Feb 2018, .
  24. Matsubara M, Komatsu M, Araki T, Asakawa S, Yokobori S, Watanabe K, Wada H, 2005. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 36:598-605.
  25. Ratnasingham S, Hebert PDN, 2007. BOLD: The barcode of life data system ( Molecular Ecology Notes, 7:355-364.
  26. Shin S, 2010. Invertebrate fauna of Korea. Vol. 32. Echinodermata: Asterozoa: Asteroidea sea stars. National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, pp. 1-150.
  27. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG, 1997. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25:4876-4882.
  28. Ward RD, Holmes BH, O'Hara TD, 2008. DNA barcoding discriminates echinoderm species. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8:1202-1211.
  29. Xiao N, Liu R, Yuan S, Sha Z, 2013. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Luidia (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from Chinese waters with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Journal of Ocean University of China, 12:459-468.