Impact of Topsoil Stockpiling Methods on the Viability of Seed Banks

  • Yi, Myung-Hoon (Department of Education and Research, Daegu Arboretum)
  • Received : 2018.10.12
  • Accepted : 2018.10.24
  • Published : 2018.10.31


The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate stockpiling methods for revegetation by comparing the germination status of seed banks before and after preservation for 2 years. Soil temperature in stockpiled topsoil was higher in open treatment and at 1.5 m, whereas soil water content was maintained at lower levels (14.06-19.08%), than those in the control group. The seed banks in stockpiled topsoil had 48 species and 1,559 individuals, among which perennials showed the highest number in terms of life forms, whereas Compositae and Gramineae were dominant in terms of families. Based on seed bank type, persistent seed banks had the highest number of species, while transient seed banks had the highest number of individuals. By stockpiling period, the number of species in the seed bank started to increase after 24 months, while the number of individuals began increasing after 12 months and exceeded that of the control group after 24 months. Regarding the treatment of stockpiling methods, the number of species and individuals in open treatment were closer to those of the control group. When analyzed by height, the number of species and individuals were higher at 0 m, but still lower than those of the control group. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA ) showed that the optimal combination was obtained in open treatment and the number of individuals increased with the lengthening of the stockpiling period.


Top soil recycling;Number of species;Number of individuals;Stockpiling period;Temporal storage


  1. Ahn, I. S., 2012, Analysis of vegetation structure and development of the community planting models based on the ecotype of the Pinus densiflora S. et Z. in Korea, Ph. D. Dissertation, Seoul University, Seoul.
  2. Bidlack, J. E., Jansky, S. H., 2014, Stern's introductory plant biology, Kim, S. H., Kang, H. S., Kwon, H. B., Kwon, H. J., Kim, S. H., Kim, J. G., Eom, A. H., Hwang, S. Y., Seoul, Life science, Original work published in 2011.
  3. Cho, H. J., Lee, C. B., 2011, Vegetation types and diversity patterns of Pinus densiflora forests in South Korea, Jour. Korean For. Sco., 100, 118-123.
  4. David, M., Jeffy J. F., Peter G. H., David, A. Z., 2005, Principle and applications of soil microbiology, 2nd edtion, Pearson Education, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 43.
  5. Granstrom, A., 1988, Seed banks at six open and afforested heathland sites in southern Sweden, J. Appl. Ecol., 25, 297-306.
  6. Gross, K. L.,1990, A comparison of method for estimating seed numbers in the soil, Ecology, 78(4), 1079-1093.
  7. Hosogi, D., Kameyama, A., 2006, Timing for the planting method using deciduous forest topsoil in suburban Tokyo, Ecol. Eng., 26, 123-131.
  8. Hosogi, D., Matsue, M., 2010, Competence of forest topsoil as revegetation material after stockpiling for one year, J. Jpn Soc. Reveget. Tech., 35, 462-472.
  9. Hosogi, D., Yoshinaga, C., Nakamura, K., Kameyama, A., 2001, Characteristics of plant community formed by slope revegetation method using forest top-soil, J. Jpn Soc. Reveget. Tech., 27, 114-119.
  10. Itou, Y., Kishizuka, M., 2008, Ecological landscape engineering, Oh, K. K., Park, S. G., Song, J. T., Jeong J. I., Trans., Seoul, Gwangilmunhwasa, Original work published in 1997.
  11. Kalisz, S., Mcpeek, M. A., 1992, Demography of an aged structure annual: resampled projection matrices, elasticity analyses, and seed bank effect, Ecology, 73, 1082-1093.
  12. Kang, H. K., Park, J. Y., Ahn, S. K., Cho, Y. H., Park, B. J., Kim W. T., Shin K. J., Eo, Y. J., Song, H. S., 2014, Germination of buried seeds in secondary forest of Balsa Zone coniferous and broadleaved forest of low slope, Yesan-gun, Korea-, Korean J. Environ Ecol., 28, 705-714.
  13. Kemp, P. R., 1989, Seed banks and vegetation processes in deserts. In: Leck, M. A., Parker, V. T., Simpson, R. L., (Eds.), Ecology of soil seed banks, Academic Press, San Diego, 257-281.
  14. Kim, N. C., Kim, H. Y., Choi, M. Y., 2015, The study on the utilization of soil seed bank for the restoration of original vegetation, J. Korean Env. Res. Tech., 18, 201-214.
  15. Kim, J. W., Lee, Y. K., 2006, Classification and assessment of plant communities. 1st ed., World Science, Seoul, 162-163.
  16. Koh, J. H., 2007, A study on the potential contribution of soil seed bank to the revegetation, J. Korean Env. Res. Tech., 10, 99-109.
  17. Korea Forest Service, 2015, 2015 forest ecological restoration project plan, Korean Forest Service Press, Daejeon, Korea, 61p.
  18. Korea National Arboretum, 2016, Korea biodiversity information system,
  19. Lee, C. S., Lee, W. K., Yoon, J. H., Song, C. C., 2006, Distribution pattern of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. stand in Korea using spatial statistics and GIS, Jour. Korean for. Soc., 95, 663-671.
  20. Park, S. G., Shin, H. T., Yi, M. H., 2010, Effects of soil water and temperature on buried seed and soil animal in the stacked forest topsoil, Proceedings of the Korean Society Environment and Ecology Conferences, Korean J. Environ Ecol., Incheon, 208-212.
  21. Roberts, H. A., 1981, Seed banks in soils. In: Coaker, T.H.(ed.), Advances in applied biology, vol. 6, Academic Press, Cambridge, 1-55.
  22. Simpson, R. L., Leck, M. A., Parker, V. T., 1989, Seed banks: general concept and methodological issues, In: Leck, M. A., Parker, V.T., Simpson, R. L., (Eds.), Ecology of soil seed banks, Academic Press, San Diego, 3-8.
  23. Tacey, H. W., Glossop, L. B., 1980, Assessment of topsoil Handling techniques for rehabilitation of sites mined for bauxite within the Jarrah forest of Western Australia, J. Appl. Ecol., 17, 195-201.
  24. Templeton, A. R., Levin, D. A., 1979, Evolutionary consequences of seed pools, Am. Nat., 114, 232-249.
  25. Thompson, K., Grime J. P., 1979, Seasonal variation in the seed banks of herbaceous species in the contrasting habitats, Ecology, 67, 893-921.
  26. The Korean Association of Biological Science, 2004, Biology dictionary, 1st ed. Academybook, Seoul, 1260.
  27. Ueda, T., Koh, J. H., Sasaki, Y., Morimoto, Y., 2004, The possibility experiment of the existing forest revegetation in a nature park zone (I) - Topsoil seedbank potential experiment -, J. Jpn Soc. Reveget. Tech., 30, 257-260.
  28. Ward, S. C., Koch, J. M., Ainsworth, G. L., 1996, Effects of bauxite mine restoration operations on topsoil seed reserves in the Jarrah forest of Western Australia, Restor. Ecol., 4, 368-376.
  29. Wild, A., 1988, Russell's soil conditions and plant growth, 11th Ed., Wild, A., Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, 721.
  30. Yi, M. H., Kim, Y. S., Kim, D. G., Park, S. G., Shin, H. T., 2010, The relationship between soil seed bank and actual vegetation, Korean J. Environ Ecol., 24, 638-647.
  31. Young, K. R., 1985, Deeply buried seeds in a tropical wet forest in Costa Rica, Biotropical, 17, 336-338.
  32. Yi, M. H. 2016, Studies on ecological restoration of Pine forest applied by seed bank in Korea, Ph. D. Dissertation, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan.