A Study on the Convenient EMF Compliance Assessment for Base Station Installations at a Millimeter Wave Frequency

  • Lee, Young Seung (Radio & Satellite Research Division, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI)) ;
  • Lee, Haeng-Seon (Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University) ;
  • Choi, Hyung-Do (Radio & Satellite Research Division, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI))
  • Received : 2018.03.26
  • Accepted : 2018.06.19
  • Published : 2018.10.31


This paper studies a convenient electromagnetic field (EMF) compliance assessment for base station installations at a millimeter wave (mmW) frequency. We utilize ray-tracing analysis as a numerical method for examining the wave propagation characteristic. Various installation cases are considered and the important parameters with a significant effect on the maximum power density levels are produced. We finally suggest the several scenarios for the convenient assessment of mmW base stations, which allow us to conduct cost effective computational tests compared with the current assessment procedure in the guideline.


Base Station;EMF Compliance Assessment;Millimeter Wave;Ray-Tracing


Grant : Study on the EMF Exposure Control in Smart Society

Supported by : Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP)


  1. T. S. Rappaport, S. Sun, R. Mayzus, H. Zhao, Y. Azar, K. Wang, et al., "Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: It will work!," IEEE Access, vol. 1, pp. 335-349, 2013.
  2. A. L. Swindlehurst, E. Ayanoglu, P. Heydari, and F. Capolino, "Millimeter-wave massive MIMO: the next wireless revolution?," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 56-62, 2014.
  3. T. S. Rappaport, Y. Xing, G. R. MacCartney, A. F. Molisch, E. Mellios, and J. Zhang, "Overview of millimeter wave communications for fifth-generation (5G) wireless networks: with a focus on propagation models," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 6213-6230, 2017.
  4. S. Han, C. L. I. Z. Xu, and C. Rowell, "Large-scale antenna systems with hybrid analog and digital beamforming for millimeter wave 5G," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 186-194, 2015.
  5. 3GPP, "Study on channel model for frequency spectrum above 6 GHz," Technical Report No. 38.900, 2016.
  6. W. Roh, J. Y. Seol, J. Park, B. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Kim, J. Cho, K. Cheun, and F. Aryanfar, "Millimeter-wave beamforming as an enabling technology for 5G cellular communications: theoretical feasibility and prototype results," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 106-113, 2014.
  7. S. Kutty and D. Sen, "Beamforming for millimeter wave communications: an inclusive survey," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 949-973, 2016.
  8. National Radio Research Agency, "Electromagnetic Field Measurement Standard," RRA Ordinance 2014-2, 2014.
  9. S. Hur, S. Baek, B. Kim, Y. Chang, A. F. Molisch, T. S. Rappaport, K. Haneda, and J. Park, "Proposal on millimeter-wave channel modeling for 5G cellular system," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 454-469, 2016.
  10. B. Guo, Y. Wu, M. Yang, and J. Li, "28 GHz millimeter wave propagation models based on ray-tracing in urban scenario," in Proceeding of 2015 IEEE 26th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Hong Kong, 2015, pp. 2209-2213.
  11. A. Y. Hsiao, C. F. Yang, T. S. Wang, I. Lin, and W. J. Liao, "Ray tracing simulations for millimeter wave propagation in 5G wireless communications," in Proceeding of 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, San Diego, CA, 2017, pp. 1901-1902.
  12. H. Kim and H. Lee, "Accelerated three dimensional ray tracing techniques using ray frustums for wireless propagation models," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 96, pp. 21-36, 2009.
  13. J. H. Lee and Y. H. Lee, "Two-dimensional adaptive array beamforming with multiple beam constraints using a generalized sidelobe canceller," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 3517-3529, 2005.
  14. A. Ahlbom, U. Bergqvist, J. H. Bernhardt, J. P. Cesarini, L. A. Court, M. Grandolfo, et al., "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494-522, 1998.
  15. S. Ilvonen, T. Toivonen, T. Toivo, T. Uusitupa, and I. Laakso, "Numerical specific absorption rate analysis and measurement of a small indoor base station antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 2516-2521, 2008.
  16. A. K. Lee, Y. Yoon, S. Lee, B. Lee, S. E. Hong, H. D. Choi, and E. Cardis, "Numerical implementation of representative mobile phone models for epidemiological studies," Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 87-99, 2016.
  17. Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radio communication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure, IEC 62232:2017, 2017.