Development of an Image Tagging System Based on Crowdsourcing

크라우드소싱 기반 이미지 태깅 시스템 구축 연구

  • 이혜영 (숙명여자대학교 문헌정보학과) ;
  • 장윤금 (숙명여자대학교 문헌정보학과)
  • Received : 2018.08.21
  • Accepted : 2018.09.07
  • Published : 2018.09.30


This study aims to improve the access and retrieval of images and to find a way to effectively generate tags as a tool for providing explanation of images. To do this, this study investigated the features of human tagging and machine tagging, and compare and analyze them. Machine tags had the highest general attributes, some specific attributes and visual elements, and few abstract attributes. The general attribute of the human tag was the highest, but the specific attribute was high for the object and scene where the human tag constructor can recognize the name. In addition, sentiments and emotions, as well as subjects of abstract concepts, events, places, time, and relationships are represented by various tags. The tag set generated through this study can be used as basic data for constructing training data set to improve the machine learning algorithm.


Image;Tagging;Image Tagging System;Crowdsourcing;Human Tag;Machine Tag


  1. Kim, Hyun-Hee and Min-Kyung Kim. 2009. "Investigating the End-User Tagging Behavior and its Implications in Flickr." Journal of information management, 40(2): 71-94.
  2. Jang, Hyunwoong and Soosun Cho. 2016. "Automatic Tagging for Social Images using Convolution Neural Networks." Journal of KIISE, 43(1): 47-53.
  3. Chung, EunKyung and SunYoung Chung. 2012. "An Approach Toward Image Access Points Based on Image Needs in Context of Everyday Life." Journal of the Korean society for information management, 29(4): 273-294.
  4. Chung, EunKyung 2012. "An Exploratory Investigation on Multimedia Information Needs and Searching Behavior among College Students." Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science, 46(3): 251-270.
  5. Armitage, L. H. and P. G. B. Enser. 1997. "Analysis of user need in image archives." Journal of Information Science, 23(4): 287-299.
  6. Bar-Ilan, J., M. Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Y. Miller, and S. Shoham. 2010. "The Effects of Background Information and Social Interaction on Image Tagging." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(5): 940-951.
  7. Beaudoin, J. 2007. "Folksonomies: Flickr image tagging: Patterns made visible." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 34(1): 26-29.
  8. Choi, Y. and S. Y. Syn. 2016. "Characteristics of Tagging Behavior in Digitized Humanities Online Collections." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 67(5): 1089-1104.
  9. Chung, E. and J. Yoon. 2010. "Examining Categorical Transition and Query Reformulation Patterns in Image Search Process." Journal of the Korean Society for Information Management, 27(2): 37-60.
  10. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative(DCMI). 2012. DCMI Type Vocabulary - DCMI Metadata Terms [online]. [cited 2017.9.12]. .
  11. Ewerth, R., M. Springstein, L. A. Phan-Vogtmann, and J. Schutze. 2017. "Are Machines Better Than Humans in Image Tagging? - A User Study Adds to the Puzzle." Advances in Information Retrieval, ECIR 2017, LNCS, 10193: 186-198.
  12. Golbeck, J., J. Koepfler, and B. Emmerling. 2011. "An experimental study of social tagging behavior and image content." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(9): 1750-1760.
  13. Hollink, L., A. Schreiber, B. J. Wielinga, and M. Worring. 2004. "Classification of user image descriptions." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 61(5): 601-626.
  14. Huang, H. 2006. "Tag distribution analysis using the power law to evaluate social tagging systems: A case study in the Flickr database." 17th ASIS&T SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop, 14-15.
  15. Huang, H. and C. Jorgensen. 2013. "Characterizing user tagging and co-occurring metadata in general and specialized metadata collections." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(9): 1878-1889.
  16. Jorgensen, C. 1998. "Attributes of images in describing tasks." Information Processing and Management, 34(2/3): 161-174.
  17. Jorgensen, C., A. Jaimes, A. B. Benitez, and S.-F. Chang. 2001, "A conceptual framework and empirical research for classifying visual descriptors." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52: 938-947.
  18. Jorgensen, C., B. Stvilia, and S. Wu. 2014. "Assessing the relationships among tag syntax, semantics, and perceived usefulness." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 65(4): 836-849.
  19. Klavans, J. L., R. LaPlante, and J. Golbeck. 2014. "Subject matter categorization of tags applied to digital images from art museums." Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(1): 3-12.
  20. Li, X., C. G. M. Snoek, and M. Worring. 2009. "Annotating images by harnessing worldwide user-tagged photos." IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2009.
  21. Lin, Y., C. Trattner, P. Brusilovsky, and D. He. 2015. "The impact of image descriptions on user tagging behavior: A study of the nature and functionality of crowdsourced tags." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 66(9): 1785-1798.
  22. Marlow, C., M. Naaman, D. Boyd, and M. Davis. 2006. "HT06, tagging paper, taxonomy, Flickr, academic article, to read." Proceedings of the seventeenth conference on Hypertext and hypermedia (HYPERTEXT '06), 31-40.
  23. Nowak, S. and S. Ruger. 2010. "How reliable are annotations via crowdsourcing: a study about inter-annotator agreement for multi-label image annotation." Proceedings of the international conference on Multimedia information retrieval (MIR '10), 557-566.
  24. Panofsky, E. 1962. "Chapter I: Introductory. In Studies in iconology." Humanistic themes in the art of the Renaissance, 3-31.
  25. Ransom, N. and P. Rafferty. 2011. "Facets of user-assigned tags and their effectiveness in image retrieval." Journal of Documentation, 67(6): 1038-1066.
  26. Shatford, S. 1986. "Analyzing the subject of a picture: A theoretical approach." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 6(3): 39-62.
  27. Sigurbjornsson, B. and R. V. Zwol. 2008. "Flickr tag recommendation based on collective knowledge." Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW '08), 327-336.
  28. Smith, M. K. 2011. "Viewer tagging in art museums: Comparisons to concepts and vocabularies of art museum visitors." Advances in Classification Research Online, 17(1): 1-19.
  29. Spink, A. and B. J. Jansen. 2006. "Searching multimedia federated content web collections." Online Journal Review, 30(5): 485-495.
  30. Wang, M., B. Ni, X. Hua, and T. Chua. 2012. "Assistive tagging: A survey of multimedia tagging with human-computer joint exploration." ACM Computing Surveys, 44(4).
  31. Yoon, J. 2011. "Searching images in daily life." Library & Information Science Research, 33: 269-275.