DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Thermal Oxidative Purification of Detonation Nanodiamond in a Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed Reactor

  • Received : 2018.04.19
  • Accepted : 2018.07.04
  • Published : 2018.10.01

Abstract

The effect of the reaction temperature and reaction time on the thermal oxidative purification quality of detonation nanodiamond (NDsoot) was investigated in a gas-solid fluidized bed reactor of a $0.10m-ID{\times}1.0m$-high stainless steel column with zirconia beads ($d_{SV}=99.2{\mu}m$). The carbon conversion increased with increasing the reaction temperature; however, when the reaction temperature was greater than 773 K, the carbon conversion did not increase. The content of $sp^3$-hybridized carbon at the reaction temperature of 703 K barely changed when the reaction time was more than 30 minutes, but at 773 K, the content decreased as preferred. At 703 K, the purification quality increased with the increasing reaction time; however, at 773 K, the purification quality increased up to 30 minutes and then decreased rapidly.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP)

References

  1. Mochalin, V. N., Shenderova, O., Ho, D. and Gogotsi, Y., "The Properties and Applications of Nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotechnol., 7 11-23(2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2011.209
  2. Chang, Y. R., Lee, H. Y., Chen, K., Chang, C. C., Tsai, D. S., Fu, C. C., Lim, T. S., Tzeng, Y. K., Fang, C. Y., Han, C. C., Chang, H. C. and Fann, W., "Mass Production and Dynamic Imaging of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotechnol., 3, 284-288 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.99
  3. Faklaris, O., Joshi, V., Irinopoulou, T., Tauc, P., Sennour, M., Girard, H., Gesset, C., Arnault, J. C., Thorel, A., Boudou, J. P., Curmi, P. A. and Treussart, F., "Photoluminescent Diamond Nanoparticles for Cell Labeling: Study of the Uptake Mechanism in Mam-malian Cells," ACS Nano, 3, 3955-3962(2009). https://doi.org/10.1021/nn901014j
  4. McGuinness, L. P., Yan, Y., Stacey, A., Simpson, D. A., Hall, L. T., Maclaurin, D., Prawer, S., Mulvaney, P., Wrachtrup, J., Caruso, F., Scholten, R. E. and Hollenberg, L. C. L., "Quantum Measurement and Orientation Tracking of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds Inside Living Cells," Nat. Nanotechnol., 6, 358-363(2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2011.64
  5. Chou, C. C. and Lee, S. H., "Tribological Behavior of Nanodiamond-dispersed Lubricants on Carbon Steels and Aluminum Alloy," Wear, 269, 757-762(2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2010.08.001
  6. Dolmatov, V. Y., "Detonation Synthesis Ultradispersed Diamonds: Properties and Applications," Uspekhi Khimii, 70, 687-708(2001).
  7. Ivanov, M. G., Pavlyshko, S. V., Ivanov, D. M., Petrov, I. and Shenderova, O., "Synergistic Compositions of Colloidal Nano-diamond as Lubricant-additive," J. Vacuum Science & Technology B, 28, 869-877(2010). https://doi.org/10.1116/1.3478245
  8. Kato, T., Lin, W. M. and Osawa, E., "Lubrication Property of Single-Digit-Nanodiamond in an Aqueous Colloid," J. Japanese Society Tribologists, 54, 122-129(2009).
  9. Shimkunas, R. A., Robinson, E., Lam, R., Lu, S., Xu, X. Y., Zhang, X. Q., Huang, H. J., Osawa, E. and Ho, D., "Nanodiamond-insulin Complexes as pH-dependent Protein Delivery Vehicles," Biomaterials, 30, 5720-5728(2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.07.004
  10. Alhaddad, A., Adam, M. P., Botsoa, J., Dantelle, G., Perruchas, S., Gacoin, T., Mansuy, C., Lavielle, S., Malvy, C., Treussart, F. and Bertrand, J. R., "Nanodiamond as a Vector for siRNA Delivery to Ewing Sarcoma Cells," Small, 7, 3087-3095(2011). https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201101193
  11. Huang, H., Pierstorff, E., Osawa, E. and Ho, D., "Active Nano-diamond Hydrogels for Chemotherapeutic Delivery," Nano Letters, 7, 3305-3314(2007). https://doi.org/10.1021/nl071521o
  12. Zhang, X. Q., Chen, M., Lam, R., Xu, X. Y., Osawa, E., Ho, D., "Polymer-Functionalized Nanodiamond Platforms as Vehicles for Gene Delivery," ACS Nano, 3, 2609-2616(2009). https://doi.org/10.1021/nn900865g
  13. Chen, M., Zhang, X. Q., Man, H. B., Lam, R., Chow, E. K., Ho, D. A., "Nanodiamond Vectors Functionalized with Polyethylenimine for siRNA Delivery," J. Physical Chemistry Letters, 1, 3167-3171(2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/jz1013278
  14. Kotov, N. A., "Inorganic Nanoparticles as Protein Mimics," Science, 330, 188-189(2010). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1190094
  15. Perevedentseva, E., Cai, P.J., Chiu, Y.C., Cheng, C.L., "Characterizing Protein Activities on the Lysozyme and Nanodiamond Complex Prepared for Bio Applications," Langmuir, 27, 1085-1091(2011). https://doi.org/10.1021/la103155c
  16. Krueger, A., "New Carbon Materials: Biological Applications of Functionalized Nanodiamond Materials," Chemistry-a European J., 14, 1382-1390(2008). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200700987
  17. Thalhammer, A., Edgington, R. J., Cingolani, L. A., Schoepfer, R. and Jackman, R. B., "The Use of Nanodiamond Monolayer Coatings to Promote the Formation of Functional Neuronal Networks," Biomaterials, 31, 2097-2104(2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.11.109
  18. Xing, Z., Pedersen, T. O., Wu, X. J., Xue, Y., Sun, Y., Finne-Wistrand, A., Kloss, F. R., Waag, T., Krueger, A., Steinmuller-Nethl, D. and Mustafa, K., "Biological Effects of Functionalizing Copolymer Scaffolds with Nanodiamond Particles," Tissue Engineering Part A, 19, 1783-1791(2013). https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2012.0336
  19. Shu, X. Z., Liu, Y. C., Palumbo, F. S., Lu, Y. and Prestwich, G. D., "In situ Crosslinkable Hyaluronan Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering," Biomaterials, 25, 1339-1348(2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.08.014
  20. Yeh, J., Ling, Y. B., Karp, J. M., Gantz, J., Chandawarkar, A., Eng, G., Blumling, J., Langer, R. and Khademhosseini, M. A., "Micromolding of Shape-controlled, Harvestable Cell-laden Hydrogels," Biomaterials, 27, 5391-5398(2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.06.005
  21. Shenderova, O. A., Zhirnov, V. V. and Brenner, D. W., "Carbon Nanostructures," Crit. Rev. Solid State Mat. Sci., 27, 227-356 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1080/10408430208500497
  22. Pichot, V., Comet, M., Fousson, E., Baras, C., Senger, A., Le Normand, F. and Spitzer, D., "An Efficient Purification Method For Detonation Nanodiamonds," Diamond and Related Materials, 17, 13-22(2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2007.09.011
  23. Osswald, S., Yushin, G., Mochalin, V., Kucheyev, S. O. and Gogotsi, Y., "Control of sp (2)/sp (3) Carbon Ratio and Surface Chemistry of Nanodiamond Powders by Selective Oxidation in air," J. American Chemical Society, 128, 11635-11642(2006). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja063303n
  24. Shenderova, O., Koscheev, A., Zaripov, N., Petrov, I., Skryabin, Y., Detkov, P., Turner, S. and Van Tendeloo, G., "Surface Chemistry and Properties of Ozone-Purified Detonation Nanodiamonds," J. Phys. Chem. C, 115, 9827-9837(2011). https://doi.org/10.1021/jp1102466
  25. Apolonskaya, I. A., Tyurnina, A. V., Kopylov, P. G. and Obraztsov, A. N., "Thermal Oxidation of Detonation Nanodiamond," Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 64, 433-436(2009). https://doi.org/10.3103/S0027134909040171
  26. Petit, T., Arnault, J. C., Girard, H. A., Sennour, M., Bergonzo, P., "Early Stages of Surface Graphitization on Nanodiamond Probed by x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy," Physical Review B, 84, 5(2011).
  27. Xie, F. Y., Xie, W. G., Gong, L., Zhang, W. H., Chen, S. H., Zhang, Q. Z. and Chen, J., "Surface Characterization on Graphitization of Nanodiamond Powder Annealed in Nitrogen Ambient," Surface and Interface Analysis, 42, 1514-1518(2010). https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.3350
  28. Cunningham, G., Panich, A. M., Shames, A. I., Petrov, I. and Shenderova, O., "Ozone-modified Detonation Nanodiamonds," Diamond and Related Materials, 17, 650-654(2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2007.10.036
  29. Xu, X. Y. and Yu, Z. M., "Influence of Thermal Oxidation on As-synthesized Detonation Nanodiamond," Particuology, 10, 339-344(2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2011.03.015
  30. Duffy, E., Mitev, D. P., Thickett, S. C., Townsend, A. T., Paull, B. and Nesterenko, P. N., "Assessing the Extent, Stability, Purity and Properties of Silanised Detonation Nanodiamond," Applied Surface Science, 357, 397-406(2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.09.002
  31. Petrov, I., Shenderova, O., Grishko, V., Grichko, V., Tyler, T., Cunningham, G. and McGuire, G., "Detonation Nanodiamonds Simultaneously Purified and Modified by Gas Treatment," Diamond and Related Materials, 16, 2098-2103(2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2007.05.013
  32. Liu, Y. Y. and Kim, D. Y., "Enhancement of Capacitance by Electro- chemical Oxidation of Nanodiamond Derived Carbon Nano-Onions," Electrochimica Acta, 139, 82-87(2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2014.07.040
  33. Zou, Q., Wang, M. Z. and Li, Y. G., "Analysis of the Nanodia- mond Particle Fabricated by Detonation," J. Experimental Nano-science, 5, 319-328(2010). https://doi.org/10.1080/17458080903531021
  34. Pu, J. C., Wang, S. F. and Sung, J. C., "High-temperature Oxidation Behavior of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films," J. Alloy. Compd., 489, 638-644(2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.09.140