DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A new method to predict swelling pressure of compacted bentonites based on diffuse double layer theory

  • Received : 2017.07.06
  • Accepted : 2018.03.29
  • Published : 2018.09.20

Abstract

Compacted bentonites were chosen as the backfill material and buffer in high level nuclear waste disposal due to its high swelling pressure, high ion adsorption capacity and low permeability. It is essential to estimate the swelling pressure in design and considering the safety of the nuclear repositories. The swelling pressure model of expansive clay colloids was developed based on Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer theory. However, the diffuse double layer model is effective in predicting low compaction dry density (low swelling pressure) for certain bentonites, and invalidation in simulating high compaction dry density (high swelling pressure). In this paper, the new relationship between nondimensional midplane potential function, u, and nondimensional distance function, Kd, were established based on the Gouy-Chapman theory by considering the variation of void ratio. The new developed model was constructed based on the published literature data of compacted Na-bentonite (MX80) and Ca-bentonite (FoCa) for sodium and calcium bentonite respectively. The proposed models were applied to re-compute swelling pressure of other compacted Na-bentonites (Kunigel-V1, Voclay, Neokunibond and GMZ) and Ca-bentonites (FEBEX, Bavaria bentonite, Bentonite S-2, Montigel bentonite) based on the reported experimental data. Results show that the predicted swelling pressure has a good agreement with the experimental swelling pressure in all cases.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Charles University

References

  1. Barcey, L., Harrington, A. and Ottewill, R.H. (1972), "The measurement of forces between particles in disperse systems", Kolloid Zeitschrift Zeitschrift fuer Polymere, 250(7), 655-666. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01498555
  2. Benson, C.H. and Meer, S.R. (2009), "Relative abundance of monovalent and divalent cations and the impact of desiccation on geosynthetic clay liners", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 135(3), 349-358. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2009)135:3(349)
  3. Bharat, T.V. and Das, D.S. (2017), "Physicochemical approach for analyzing equilibrium volume of clay sediments in salt solutions", Appl. Clay Sci., 136, 164-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.11.021
  4. Bharat, T.V., Sivapullaiah, P.V. and Allam, M.M. (2013), "Novel procedure for the estimation of swelling pressures of compacted bentonites based on diffuse double layer theory", Environ. Earth Sci., 70(1), 303-314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2128-7
  5. Bolt, G.H. (1956), "Physico-chemical analysis of the compressibility of pure clays", Geotechnique, 6(2), 86-93. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1956.6.2.86
  6. Bucher, F and Muler-Vonmoos, M. (1989), "Bentonite as a containment barrier for the disposal of highly radioactive waste", Appl. Clay Sci., 4(2), 157-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-1317(89)90006-9
  7. Chapman, D.L. (1913), "A contribution to the theory of electrocapillarity", Philosoph. Mag., 25, 475-481.
  8. Delage, P. (2007), Microstructure Features in the Behaviour of Engineered Barriers for Nuclear Waste Disposal, in Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, Springer, 11-32.
  9. Dixon, D.A and Gray, M.N. (1985), The Engineering Properties of Buffer Material, Technical Report TR-350, Fuel Waste Technology Branch, Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa, Canada.
  10. Eberl, D.D. (1984), "Clay mineral formation in rocks and soils", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 311(1517), 241-257. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1984.0026
  11. ENRESA. (2000), FEBEX project-Full Scale Engineered Barriers Experiments for a Deep Geological Respiratory for High Level Radioactive Waste in Crystalline Host Rock, Final Report, Publicacion Teechnica 1/2000, Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid, Spain.
  12. Gouy, G. (1910), "Electric charge on the surface of an electrolyte", J. Phys., 4(9), 457-467.
  13. Grim, R.E. (1968), Clay Mineralogy, McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A.
  14. Gueddouda, M.K., Lamara, M., Abou-Bekr, N. and Taibi, S. (2010), "Hydraulic behaviour of dune sand-bentonite mixtures under confining stress", Geomech. Eng., 2(3), 213-227. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2010.2.3.213
  15. Imbert, C. and Villar, M.V. (2006), "Hydro-mechanical response of a bentonite pellets/powder mixture upon infiltration", Appl. Clay Sci., 32(3-4), 197-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2006.01.005
  16. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. (1999), H12: Project to Establish the Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan: Supporting Report 2 (Respiratory Design and Engineering Technology), Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
  17. Kittrick, J.A. (1969), "Interlayer forces in montmorillonite and vermiculite", Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 33(2), 217-222. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1969.03615995003300020017x
  18. Komine, H. (2004), "Simplified evaluation for swelling characteristics of bentonites", Eng. Geol., 71(3-4), 265-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(03)00140-6
  19. Komine, H. and Ogata, N. (1996), "Prediction for swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite", Can. Geotech. J., 33(1), 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1139/t96-021
  20. Laird D.A (2006), "Influence of layer charge on swelling of smectites", Appl. Clay Sci., 34(1-4), 74-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2006.01.009
  21. Lajudie, A., Raynal, J., Petit, J.C. and Toulhoat, P. (1996), "Claybased materials for engineered barriers: A review", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 353, 221-229.
  22. Lambe, T.W. and Whitman, R.V. (1969), Soil Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A.
  23. Liu, L. (2013), Prediction of swelling pressures of different types of bentonite in dilute solutions", Colloid. Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspect., 434, 303-318 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.05.068
  24. Liu, L. (2015), "Counterion-only electrical double layers: An application of density functional theory", J. Chem. Phys., 143(6), 064902. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4928508
  25. MacEwan, D.M.C. (1954), "Short-range electrical forces between charged colloid particles", Nature, 174(4418), 39-40.
  26. Marcial, D., Delage, P. and Cui, Y.J. (2002), "On the high stress compression of bentonites", Can. Geotech. J., 39(4), 812-820. https://doi.org/10.1139/t02-019
  27. Masin, D. and Khalili, N. (2016), "Swelling phenomena and effective stress in compacted expansive clays", Can. Geotech. J., 53(1), 134-147. https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2014-0479
  28. Mitchell, J.K. (1993), Fundamentals of Soil Behaviour, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A.
  29. Mitchell, J.K. and Soga, K. (2005), Fundamentals of Soil Behaviour, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, U.S.A.
  30. Muller-Vonmoos, M. and Kahr, G. (1982), Bereitstellung von Bentonit fur Laboruntersuchungen, Nationale Genossenschaft fur die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfalle, Nagra Technischer Bericht 82-04, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
  31. Muller-Vonmoos, M. and Kahr, G. (1983), Mineralogische Untersuchungen von Wyoming Bentonit MX-80 und Montigel, Nagra Technischer Bericht, 83-12.
  32. Nelson, J.D., Chao, K.C., Overton, D.D. and Nelson, E.J. (2015), Foundation Engineering for Expansive Soils, Wiley, New York, U.S.A.
  33. Norrish, K. (1954), "The swelling of montmorillonite", Discuss. Faraday Soc., 18, 120-134. https://doi.org/10.1039/df9541800120
  34. Phillips, A. and Tripathy, S. (2011), "Swelling pressures of some initially saturated and compacted saturated bentonites", J. Adv. Technol. Civ. Eng., 1(1), 64-69.
  35. Puppala, A.J., Pedarla, A., Pino, A. and Hoyos, L.R. (2017), "Diffused double-layer swell prediction model to better characterize natural expansive clays", J. Eng. Mech., 143(9), 04017069. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0001292
  36. Pusch, R. (1982), "Mineral-water interactions and their influence on the physical behaviour of highly compacted Na bentonite", Can. Geotech. J., 19(3), 381-387. https://doi.org/10.1139/t82-041
  37. Pusch, R. (1992), "Use of bentonite for isolation of radioactive waste products", Clay Miner, 27(3), 353-361. https://doi.org/10.1180/claymin.1992.027.3.08
  38. Schanz, T. and Al-Badran, Y. (2014), "Swelling pressure characteristics of compacted Chinese Gaomiaozi bentonite GMZ01", Soils Found., 54(4), 748-759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2014.06.026
  39. Schanz, T. and Tripathy, S. (2009), "Swelling pressure of a divalent-rich bentonite: Diffuse double-layer theory revisited", Water Resour. Res., 45(2),W00C12.
  40. Sridharan, A. and Choudhury, D. (2002), "Swelling pressure of sodium montmorillonites", Geotechnique, 52(6), 459-462. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2002.52.6.459
  41. Sridharan, A. and Jayadeva, M.S. (1982), "Double layer theory and compressibility of clays", Geotechnique, 32(2), 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1982.32.2.133
  42. Sun, D.A., Zhang, L., Li, J. and Zhang, B. (2015), "Evaluation and prediction of the swelling pressures of GMZ bentonites saturated with saline solution", Appl. Clay Sci., 105, 207-216.
  43. Sun, H. (2017), "Prediction of swelling pressure of compacted bentonite with respect to void ratio based on diffuse double layer theory", Proceedings of the GeoMEast 2017: Advances in Characterization and Analysis of Expansive Soils and Rocks, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, July.
  44. Sun, H., Masin, D., Najser, J., Nedela, V. and Navratilova, E. (2018), Bentonite microstructure and saturation evolution in wetting-drying cycles evaluated using ESEM, MIP and WRC measurements", Geotechnique, 1-53.
  45. Tamura, K., Yamada, H. and Nakazawa, H. (2000), "Stepwise hydration of high-quality synthetic smectite with various cations", Clays Clay Miner., 48(3), 400-404. https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.2000.0480311
  46. Tripathy, S., Sridharan, A. and Schanz, T. (2004), "Swelling pressures of compacted bentonites from diffuse double layer theory", Can. Geotech. J., 41(3), 437-450. https://doi.org/10.1139/t03-096
  47. Van Geet. M., Bastiaens W., Volckaert, G., Weetjens, E., Sillen, X., Maes, N., Imbert, Ch., Billaud, P., Touze G., Filippi, M., Plas, F., Villar, M.V., Garcia-Gutierrez, M., Mingarro, M., Gens, A. and Vallejan, B. (2009), A Large-scale in situ Demonstration Test for Repository Sealing in an Argillaceous Host Rock-Phase II, Technical Report No. EUR 24161 EN, European Commission, Contract No. FIKW-CT-2000-00010.
  48. Van Olphen, H. (1963), An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry: For Clay Technologists, Geologists and Soil Scientists, Interscience, New York, U.S.A.
  49. Van Olphen, H. (1977), An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry: For Clay Technologists, Geologists and Soil Scientists, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York, U.S.A.
  50. Verwey, E.J.W. and Overbeek, J.T.G. (1948), Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids, Elsevier.
  51. Warkentin, B.P. and Schofield, R.K. (1958), "Swelling pressures of dilute Na-montmorillonite pastes", Proceedings of the 7th National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., October.
  52. Wen, Z.J. (2006), "Physical property of China's buffer material for high-level radioactive waste repositories", Chin. J. Rock Mech. Eng., 25(4), 794-800.
  53. WNA (2016), Radioactive Waste Management, World Nuclear Association, London, U.K., .
  54. Yong, R.N. (1999a), "Overview of modeling of clay microstructure and interactions for prediction of waste isolation barrier performance", Eng. Geol., 54(1-2), 83-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(99)00064-2
  55. Yong, R.N. (1999b), "Soil suction and soil-water potentials in swelling clays in engineered barriers", Eng. Geol., 54(1-2), 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(99)00056-3
  56. Yong, R.N. and Mohamed, A.M.O. (1992), "A study of particle interaction energies in wetting of unsaturated expansive clays", Can. Geotech. J., 29(6), 1060-1070. https://doi.org/10.1139/t92-123
  57. Yong, R.N., Sadana, M.L. and Gohl, W.B. (1984), "A particle interaction model for assessment of swelling of an expansive soil", Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Expansive Soils, Adelaide, Australia, May.
  58. Zhang, F., Zhang, Z.Z., Low, P.F. and Roth, C.B. (1993), "The effect of temperature on the swelling of montmorillonite", Clay Miner., 28, 25-31. https://doi.org/10.1180/claymin.1993.028.1.03