Comparison of Accuracy for Autorefraction according to Measuring methods

측정방식에 따른 자동굴절검사의 정확도 비교

  • 정연홍 (국제대학교 안경광학과)
  • Received : 2018.05.28
  • Accepted : 2018.08.03
  • Published : 2018.08.31


In this study, the performance between subjective refraction and open-field/closed view autorefraction was estimated. We measured the refractive error of early adults aged 18 to 20 years who did not have eye disease. The differences between measurements obtained by subjective refraction and open-field autorefraction for SE, J0, and J45 were $-0.13{\pm}0.53D$ (p=0.17), $+0.33{\pm}0.68D$ (p=0.01), and $+0.13{\pm}0.68D$ (p=0.26), respectively, with only J0 differing significantly. The differences between the measurements of subjective refraction and closed-view autorefraction for SE, J0, and J45 were $-0.30{\pm}0.42D$ (p=0.00), $+0.30{\pm}0.71D$ (p=0.02), and $-0.02{\pm}0.63D$ (p=0.88), respectively, with only SE and J0 differing significantly. The coefficient of accuracy for SE, J0, and J45 components of open-field and closed-view autorefraction were 1.04, 1.33, and 1.34 and 0.83, 1.40, and 1.24, respectively. It is possible to predict the refractive error, which is necessary when deciding on subjective refraction, by measuring the objective refraction of open-field/closed view autorefractors.


Refractive error;Subjective refraction;Objective refraction;Open-field autorefractor;Closed-view autorefractor


  1. Compilation Committee "Optometric Instrumentation", 2nd ed. Daihakseorim, Seoul, pp.219-255, 2000.
  2. Y. H. Jeong, "The Correlation of Tear Break-Up Time according to Corneal Refractive Power", Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol.14, No.6, pp.2839-2843. 2013. DOI:
  3. K. Zadnik, D. O. Mutti, A. J. Adams, "The repeatability of measurements of the ocular components", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol.33, No.7, pp.2325-2333, 1992.
  4. M. Farook, J. Venkatramani, G. Gazzard, A. Cheng, D. Tan, S. M. Saw, "Comparisons of the Handheld Autorefractor, Table-Mounted Autorefractor, and Subjective Refraction in Singapore Adults", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.82, No.12, pp.1066-1070, 2005. DOI:
  5. A. A. Martinez, A. Pandian, P. Sankaridurg, K. Rose, S. C. Huynh, P. Mitchell, "Comparison of Aberrometer and Autorefractor Measures of Refractive Error in Children", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.83, No.11, pp.811-817, 2006. DOI:
  6. Andrew, K. Caroline. C, "Clinical optics and refraction: A guide for optometrists, contact lens opticians and dispensing opticians", 1st ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, pp.170-171, 2007.
  7. H. S. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. Lee, "A Comparison of Subjective Refraction and Autorefractions", The Korean Journal of Vision Science, Vol.12, No.4, pp.283-290, 2010.
  8. M. A. Bullimore, R. E. Fusaro, C. W. Adams, "The repeatability of automated and clinician refraction", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.75, No.8, pp.617-622, 1998. DOI:
  9. K. Pesudovs, H. S. Weisinger, "A comparison of autorefractor performance", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.81, No.7, pp.554-558, 2004. DOI:
  10. J. D. Kim, I. H. Lee, J. H. Hwang, J. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, "An Inverstigation of Korean Opticians' Thinking to Objective Refraction Need", The Korean Journal of Vision Science, Vol.14, No.4, pp.222-254, 2010.
  11. L. N. Davies, E. A. Mallen, J. S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, "Clinical evaluation of the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001/Grand Seiko WR-5100K autorefractor", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.80, No.4, pp.320-324, 2003. DOI:
  12. J. Gwiazda, C. Weber, "Comparison of Spherical Equivalent Refraction and Astigmatism Measured with Three Different Models of Autorefractors", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.81, No.1, pp.56-61, 2004. DOI:
  13. T. Dave, Y. Fukuma, "Clinical evaluation of the Topcon BV-1000 automated subjective refraction system", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.81, No.5, pp.323-333, 2004. DOI:
  14. C. H. Won, M. A. Jung, K. C Mah, "The analysis of the clinical performance of the PRK-5000 auto ref-keratometer", Korean J Vis Sci. Vol.7, No.1 pp.13-25, 2005.
  15. K. C Mah, S. J. Kim, H. J. Lee, "The Analysis of the Clinical Performance of the URK-700 Autorefractor", Korean J Vis Sci., Vol.8, No.2, 87-96, 2006.
  16. L. N. Thibos, W. Wheeler, D. Horner, "Power Vectors: An Application of Fourier Analysis to the Description and Statistical Analysis of Refractive Error", Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.74, No.6, pp.367-375, 1997. DOI:
  17. D. K. Han, J. M. Kim, K. J. Lee, "Comparison of accuracy of the KR-8100P, Nvision K-5001, and KR-1W", The Korean Journal of Vision Science, Vol.18, No.4, pp.435-445, 2016. DOI:
  18. J. M. Bland, D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement", The Lancet, Vol.327, No.8476, pp.307-310, 1986. DOI:
  19. G. E. McCaghrey, F. E. Matthews, "Clinical evaluation of a range of autorefractors", Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, Vol.13, No.2, pp.129-137, 1993. DOI: