Impact of applying sex sorted semen on the selection proportion of the sire of dams selection pathway in a nucleus program

  • Received : 2017.02.15
  • Accepted : 2017.10.22
  • Published : 2018.09.01


Objective: In a nucleus breeding scheme, the sire of dam's pathway plays an important role in producing genetic improvement. Selection proportion is the key parameter for predicting selection intensity, through truncating the normal distribution. Semen sexing using flow cytometry reduces the number of vials of sperm that can be obtained from a proved bull. In addition, a lower fertility of this kind of sperm is expected because of the lower sperm dosage in sex sorted semen. Both of these factors could affect the selection proportion in the sire of dam's pathway ($p_{SD}$). Methods: In the current study, through a deterministic simulation, effect of utilizing sex sorted semen on selection ($p_{SD}$) was investigated in three different strategies including 1: continuous use of sex sorted semen in heifers (CS), 2: the use of sex sorted semen for the first two (S2) and 3: the first (S1) inseminations followed by conventional semen. Results: Results indicated that the use of sex sorted semen has a negative impact on the sire of dams (SD) pathway due to increase in selection proportion. Consequently selection intensity was decreased by 10.24 to 20.57, 6.38 to 8.87 and 3.76 to 6.25 percent in the CS, S2, and S1 strategies, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the low effect of sexed semen on genetic improvement in dam pathways, it is necessary to consider the joint effect of using sex sorted semen on the sire and dams pathway to estimate about the real effect of sexed semen on genetic improvement in a nucleus breeding scheme.


  1. Norman HD, Hutchison JL, Miller RH. Use of sexed semen and its effect on conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth of Holsteins in the United States. J Dairy Sci 2010;93: 3880-90.
  2. De Vries A, Overton M, Fetrow J, et al. Exploring the impact of sexed semen on the structure of the dairy industry. J Dairy Sci 2008;91:847-56.
  3. DeJarnette JM, Nebel RL, Marshall CE. Evaluating the success of sex-sorted semen in US dairy herds from on farm records. Theriogenology 2009;71:49-58.
  4. Chebel RC, Guagnini FS, Santos JEP, Fetrow JP, Lima JR. Sexsorted semen for dairy heifers: effects on reproductive and lactational performances. J Dairy Sci 2010;93:2496-507.
  5. Abdel-Azim G, Schnell S. Genetic impacts of using femalesorted semen in commercial and nucleus herds. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:1554-63.
  6. Olynk NJ, Wolf CA. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:2569-76.
  7. Baker RL, Shannon P, Garrick DJ, Blair HT, Wickham BW. The future impact of new opportunities in reproductive physiology and molecular biology on genetic improvement programmes. Proc New Zealand Soc Anim Prod 1990;50:197-210.
  8. Hohenboken WD. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production. Theriogenology 1999;52:1421-33.
  9. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh N, Nejati-Javaremi A, Miraei-Ashtiani SR, Kohram H. Bio-economic evaluation of the use of sexed semen at different conception rates and herd sizes in Holstein populations. Anim Rep Sci 2010;121:17-23.
  10. Pedersen LD, Kargo M, Berg P, et al. Genomic selection strategies in dairy cattle breeding programmes: Sexed semen cannot replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer as superior reproductive technology. J Anim Breed Genet 2012;129:152-63.
  11. Pedersen LD, Sorensen MK, Berg P, Andersen JV, Sorensen AC. Using sex sorted semen has limited effect on genetic gain in a dairy cattle breeding scheme using genomic selection. Proceeding of the 9th WCGALP 2010; Leipzig, Germany.
  12. Boustan A, Nejati Javaremi A, Moradi shahre babak M. Economic and genetic aspects of using sexed semen in traditional and genomic evaluation of Iraninan Holstein dairy cattle: a simulation study. J Agric Sci Technol 2014;16:801-10.
  13. Van Vleck LD. Potential genetic impact of artificial insemination, sex selection, embryo transfer, cloning and selfing in dairy cattle: new technologies in animal breeding. New York, USA: Academic Press; 1981. pp. 222-42.
  14. Khalajzadeh S, Nejati Javaremi A, Mehrbani Yeganeh H. Effects of using sexed semen in dairy cattle breeding scheme. Proceeding of the 9th WCGALP 2010; Leipzig, Germany.
  15. Joezy-Shekalgorabi S, Shadparvar AA. Expected variations in generation interval in dam of future dams pathway of dairy cows as a result of utilization of sex sorted semen. Anim Prod Sci 2015;4:69-76.
  16. Rendel JM, Robertson A. Estimation of genetic gain in milk yield by selection in a closed herd of dairy cattle. J Genet 1950;50:1-8.
  17. Joezy-Shekalgorabi S, Shadparvar AA, Vaez-Torshizi R, Moradi shahre babak M, Jorjani H. Genetic analysis of a conventional progeny testing in Iran. Proceeding of the 9th WCGALP 2010; Leipzig, Germany.
  18. Dekkers JCM, Gibson JP, Bijma P, Van Arendonk AM. Economic aspects of applied breeding program. Ames, IA, USA: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State Univ; 2004. 50014.
  19. Seidel Jr GE, schenk JL. Field trials with sexed, frozen bovine semen. In: Proc. 19th Technolgical Conference of Artificial Insemination and Reproduction of National Assocciation of Animal Breeders; 2002. Columbia, MO, USA. pp. 64-9.
  20. Ryan DP, Boland MP. Frequency of twin births among Holstein-Friesian cows in a warm dry climate. Theriogenology 1991;36:1-10.
  21. Joezy-shekalgorabi S, Shadparvar AA. Simulation of the effect of utilizing sex sorted semen on number of services per conception in primiparous cows. Res Anim Prod 2013;3:80-90.