Adsorption and Leaching Characteristics of Nonionic Pesticides in Soils of Jeju Island, Korea

제주도 토양 중 비이온계 농약의 흡착 및 용탈 특성

  • Chun, Si-Bum (Jeju National University Biotechnology Regional Innovation Center) ;
  • Hyun, Ik-Hyun (Research Institute of Health & Environment, Jeju Special-Governing Province) ;
  • Lee, Min-Gyu (Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kam, Sang-Kyu (Department of Environmental Engineering, Jeju National University)
  • 전시범 (제주대학교 생명과학기술혁신센터) ;
  • 현익현 (제주특별자치도 보건환경연구원) ;
  • 이민규 (부경대학교 화학공학과) ;
  • 감상규 (제주대학교 환경공학과)
  • Received : 2018.04.16
  • Accepted : 2018.05.29
  • Published : 2018.07.31


Agricultural soils around springwaters heavily affected by pesticide run-off and around wells considering the regional characteristics were collected at 24 stations in Jeju Island, and the physicochemical properties and adsorption and leaching characteristics of four nonionic pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, alachlor, and metalaxyl) were investigated. The values of the major soil factors affecting the adsorption and leaching of pesticides, namely, soil pH($H_2O$), organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC), were in the range of 4.64 ~ 8.30, 0.9 ~ 13.1% and 12.7 ~ 31.7 meq/100 g, respectively. The Freundlich constant, $K_F$ value, which gives a measure of the adsorption capacity, decreased in the order of fenitrothion > diazinon > alachlor > metalaxyl, which was identical to their lower water solubility. Among the collected soils, the $K_F$ value was very highly correlated with organic matter content ($r^2=0.800{\sim}0.876$) and CEC ($r^2=0.715{\sim}0.825$) and showed a high correlation with clay content ($r^2=0.473{\sim}0.575$) and soil pH($H_2O$) ($r^2=0.401{\sim}0.452$). The leaching of pesticides in the soil column showed a reverse relationhip with their adsorption in soils, i.e., the pesticides leached more quickly for the soils with lower values of organic matter content and CEC among the soils and for the pesticides with higher water solubility.


Supported by : 제주대학교


  1. Abate, F., Masini, J. C., 2005, Adsorption of atrazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine onto Fe(III) polyhydroxy cations intercalated vermiculite and montmorillonite, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 1612-1619.
  2. Calhoun, F. G., Carlisle, V. W., Luna, C., 1972, Properties and genesis of selected Columbian Andosols, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., 36, 480-485.
  3. Cao, J., Guo, H., Zhu, H. M., Jiang, L., Yang, H., 2008, Effects of SOM, surfactant and pH on the sorption-desorption and mobility of prometryne in soils, Chemosphere, 70, 2127-2134.
  4. Cheah, U. B., Kirkwood, R. C., Lum, K. Y., 1997, Adsorption, desorption and mobility of four commonly used pesticides in Malaysian agricultural soils, Pesti. Sci., 50, 53-63.<53::AID-PS558>3.0.CO;2-P
  5. Choi, J., Yoo, K. S., Kim, B. J., 2002, University Soil Science Experiment, Yeongnam University Press.
  6. Giles, C. H., MacEwen, T. H., Nakhwa, S. N., Smith, D., 1960, Studies in adsortion, Part XI., A System of classification of solution adsortion isotherms, and its use in diagnosis of adsortion mechanisms and in measurement of specific surface areas of solids, J. Chem. Soc., 3, 3973-3993.
  7. Gregg, S. J., Sing, K. S. W., 1967, Adsorption, Surface Area and Porosity, Academic Press, London, UK, 277-307.
  8. Gustafson, D. I., 1989, Groundwater ubiquity score: A Simple method for assessing pesticide leachability, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8, 339-357.
  9. Hu, J. Y., Aizawa, T., Ookubo, Y., Morita, T., Magara, Y., 1998, Adsorptive characteristics of ionogenic aromatic pesticides in water on powderd acrivated carbon, Wat. Res., 32, 2593-2600.
  10. Hyun, H. N., Jang, G. M., Oh, S. S., Chung, J. B., 2007, Evaluation of groundwater contamination potential of pesticides using groundwater ubiquity score in Jeju Island soils, Korean J. Pesti. Sci., 11, 144-153.
  11. Hyun, H. N., Oh, S. S., Yoo, S., 1995, Adsorption and movement of alachlor and chlorothalonil in the representative soil of Cheju Island, Korean J. Environ. Agric., 14, 135-143.
  12. Inoue, M. H., Oliveria, R. S., Regitano, J. B., Tormena, C. A., Constantin, J., Tornisielo, V. L., 2004, Sorption kinetics of atrazine and diuron in soils from southern Brazil, J. Environ. Sci. Health, 39, 589-601.
  13. Jeju Special Self-governing Province, 2008, Environ-mental White Paper, 345-347.
  14. Jury, W. A., Focht, D. D., Farmer, W. J., 1987, Evaluation of pesticide groundwater pollution potential from standard indices of soil-chemical adsortion and biodegradation. J. Environ. Qual. 16, 422-428.
  15. Kah, M., Brown, C. D., 2006, Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 188, 149-217.
  16. Kam, S. K., Ko, B. C., Oh, Y. K., Lee, Y. D., Kim, J. H., 1999, Adsorption and leaching of organophosphorus pesticides, J. Korean Environ. Sci. Soc., 8, 379-386.
  17. Kim, J. H., Feagley, S. E., 1998, Adsortion and leaching of trifrulalin, metolachlor, and metribuzin in a commerce soil, J. Environ. Sci Health, B33, 529-546.
  18. Kim, K. S., 2001, Adsorption-desorption characteristics of the pesticides in natural and synthetic zeolites, MS Thesis, Cheju National University.
  19. Kim, S. R., Hyun, S. S., Song, S. T., Lee, M. G., Kam, S. K., 2015, Concentration of heavy metals in natural soils of Jeju Island, Korea, J. Environ. Sci. Int., 24, 175-188.
  20. Larson, S. J., Capel, P. D., Majewski, M. S., 1997, Pesticides in Surface Waters: Distribution Trends, and Governing Factors, Ann Arbor Press.
  21. Leonard, R. A., 1990, Movement of pesticides into surface waters, in: Cheng, H. (Ed.), Pesticides in the Soil Environment: Processes, Impacts and Modeling, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. 303-349.
  22. Ministry of Environment, 2005, Soil measuring network and results of research on the actual condition in 2004.
  23. Niwas, R., Gupta, U., Khan, A. A., Varshney, K. G., 2000, The adsorption of phosphamidon on the surface of styrene supported zirconium(IV) tungstophosphate: a thermodynamic study, Colloids & Surfaces A, 164, 115-119.
  24. Nometh-Konda, L., Füleky, G., Morovjan, G., Csokan, P., 2002, Sorption behaviour of acetochlor, atrazine, carbendazim, diazinon, imidacloprid and isoproturon on Hungarian agricultural soil, Chemosphere, 48, 545-552.
  25. Page, A. L., 1985, Methods of Soil Analysis (2nd ed.), Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Am. Soc. Agron., Inc., Soil Soc. Am., Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  26. Park, C. S., Kim, L. Y., Cho, S. J., 1985, Classification of volcanic ash soils and contribution of organic matter and clay to cation exchange capacity, Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert., 18, 161-168.
  27. Sharma, D., Awasthi, M. D., 1997, Adsorption and movement of metalaxyl in soils under unsaturated flow conditions, Plant and Soil, 195, 293-298.
  28. Singh, N., Wahid, P. A., Murthy, M. V. R., Sethunathan, N., 1990, Sorption-desorption of methyl parathion, fenitrothion and carbofuran in soils, J. Environ. Sci. Health, B25, 713-728.
  29. Tomlin, 1994, The Pesticide Manual (10th Ed.), Crop Protection Publications.
  30. Walkley, A., Black, I. A., 1934, An Examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method, Soil Sci., 37, 29-38.
  31. Wania, F., Mackay, D., 1996, Tracing the distribution of persistent organic pollutants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 390-396.
  32. Weber, J. B., Peter, C. J., 1982, Adsorption, bioactivity, and evaluation of soil tests for alachlor, acetochlor, and metolachlor, Weed Sci., 30, 14-20.