DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Heritage Soft Power in East Asia's Memory Contests: Promoting and Objecting to Dissonant Heritage in UNESCO

  • Nakano, Ryoko
  • Published : 2018.06.30

Abstract

Heritage has entered the center stage of public diplomacy in East Asia. Competition to claim and interpret memories of World War II in East Asia has driven campaigns to list heritage items with UNESCO. State and non-state actors aim to use heritage listings to present a particular view of the war and related history to domestic and international audiences. This paper highlights the role of heritage soft power in East Asia's "memory contests" by examining the promotion of dissonant modern heritage in UNESCO's heritage programs. It conceptualizes heritage designation as a soft power resource in East Asia and presents a conceptual framework for understanding the hegemonic competition over the "memory regime" that emerged from the structural change in East Asia's regional order. It then uses this framework to analyze the processes by which state and non-state actors promote and/or object to UNESCO recognition of their sites and documents as heritage of outstanding universal value or world significance. The elements of this process are illustrated with case studies of two very different pieces of heritage, Japan's "Sites of the Meiji Industrial Revolution" and China's "Documents of Nanjing Massacre," which were enshrined as significant world heritage in 2015. While state and non-state actors in East Asia are increasingly recognizing the utility of heritage as a soft power resource for advancing specific historical narratives to an international audience, a backlash movement from civil society groups and governments in other countries prevents a purely unilateral interpretation. As a result, the utility of heritage soft power in this context must be significantly qualified.

Keywords

heritage;soft power;memory of war;East Asia;UNESCO

References

  1. Abe, Shinzo. (2006). Utsukushi kuni e. Tokyo: Bungei Shunju.
  2. Akagawa, Natsuko. (2014). Heritage conservation and Japan's cultural diplomacy: Heritage, national identity and national interest. Abingdon, Oxford: Routledge.
  3. Ayhan, Kadir. (2017). Korea's soft power and public diplomacy under Moon Jae-In administration: A window of opportunity. In Kadir Ayhan (Ed.), Korea's soft power and public diplomacy (pp. 13-32). Seoul: Hangang Network.
  4. Barnett, Michael N. and Raymond Duvall. (2005). Power in global governance. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Bertacchini, Enrico, Claudia Liuzza, Lynn Meskell, and Donatella Saccone. (2016). The politicization of UNESCO World Heritage decision making. Public Choice 167(1), 95-129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-016-0332-9
  6. Calder, Kent E. (2014). Asia in Washington: Exploring the penumbra of transnational power. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
  7. Chang, Iris. (1997). The rape of Nanking: The forgotten Holocaust of World War II. New York: Basic Books.
  8. China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of. (2014, March 28). Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping President of the People's Republic of China at UNESCO Headquarters. Retrieved from http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/zyjh_665391/t1142560.shtml
  9. Chitty, Naren. (2017). Soft power, cultural virtue and world politics. In Naren Chitty, Li Ji, Gary D. Rawnsley and Craig Hayden (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of soft power (pp. 9-36). London and New York, NY: Routledge.
  10. Duedahl, Poul. (2016). A history of UNESCO: Global actions and impacts. Basingstoke, UK and New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  11. Goh, Evelyn. (2013). The struggle for order: Hegemony, hierarchy, and transition in post-Cold War East Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. Gustafsson, Karl. (2014). Memory politics and ontological security in Sino-Japanese relations. Asian Studies Review, 38(1), 71-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10357823.2013.852156
  13. Hall, Ian and Frank Smith. (2013). The struggle for soft power in Asia: Public diplomacy and regional competition. Asian Security, 9(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/14799855.2013.760926
  14. Hase, Hiroshi. (2015). Speech at the 38th session of the General Conference of UNESCO. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/GBS/EXB/images/Japan_Eng.pdf
  15. Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of. (2015a). New inscriptions on the UNESCO "Memory of the World Register" (Statement by Foreign Press Secretary Yasuhisa Kawamura). Retrieved from www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press4e_000887.html
  16. Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of. (2015b). Press Conference by Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida. Retrieved from www.mofa.go.jp/press/kaiken/kaiken4e_000183.html
  17. Jiang, Fang and Cai Yugao. (2015) Fangwen Nanjing datusha dang'an shenyi faqiren Zhu Chengshan. Zhongguo junwang. Retrieved from http://www.81.cn/jwgz/2015-10/10/content_6716194.htm
  18. Jung, Yong Hun. (2015). UNESCOwa segye yusan. Concrete hakhoi ji, 27(3), 68-72.
  19. Kang, Hyungseok. (2015). Contemporary cultural diplomacy in South Korea: Explicit and implicit approaches. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 21(4), 433-447. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2015.1042473
  20. Kersel, Morag M. and Christina Luke. (2015). Heritage diplomacy and neo-imperialism. In Lynn Meskell (Ed.), Global heritage: A reader (pp. 70-93). Chichester, UK and Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
  21. Kim, Mikyoung. (2014). Memorializing comfort women: Memory and human rights in Korea-Japan relations. Asian Politics & Policy, 6(1), 83-96. https://doi.org/10.1111/aspp.12089
  22. Kimura, Kan. (2015). Seoul's last-minute campaign to derail Japan's world heritage bid. Nippon.com. Retrieved from http://www.nippon.com/en/currents/d00193/?pnum=1
  23. Lai, Celine. UNESCO and Chinese heritage: an ongoing campaign to achieve world-class standards. In Poul Duedahl (Ed.), A history of UNESCO: global actions and impacts (pp. 313-324). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  24. Lee, Yong Wook. (2011). Soft power as productive power. In Sook Jong Lee and Jan Melissen (Eds.), Public diplomacy and soft power in East Asia (pp. 33-49). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  25. Lu, Rucai. (2015, September 23). China and UNESCO: Advance hand in hand. China Today. Retrieved from http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/english/report/2015-09/23/content_704869.htm
  26. Matsuura, Koichiro, Togo Kazuhiko, and Igarasihi Keiki. (2016). Yunesuko sekai kioku isan wo kangaeru. Sekai, February, 225-236.
  27. Mattern, Janice Bially. (2005). Why 'soft power' isn't so soft: Representational force and the sociolinguistic construction of attraction in world politics. Millennium, 33(3), 583-612. https://doi.org/10.1177/03058298050330031601
  28. McDowell, Sara. (2008). Heritage, memory and identity. In Brian and Peter Howard Graham (Eds.), The Ashgate research companion to heritage and identity (pp. 37-54). Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
  29. Meskell, Lynn. (2013). UNESCO's World Heritage Convention at 40: Challenging the economic and political order of international heritage conservation. Current Anthropology, 54(4), 483-494. https://doi.org/10.1086/671136
  30. Min, Dong-seok. (2015). Gyogawseo hangwonui gijeok: UNESCO nuen hangukeul eotteokke bakkwossna. Seoul: Korean National Commission for UNESCO.
  31. Nakano, Ryoko. (2016). Sino-Japanese territorial dispute and the perception of threat and power transition. The Pacific Review, 29(2), 165-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2015.1013493
  32. Nakano, Ryoko. (in press). A failure of global documentary heritage? UNESCO's 'Memory of the World' and heritage dissonance in East Asia. Contemporary Politics.
  33. Nye, Joseph S. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. New York: Public Affairs.
  34. Rumy, Doo. (2017). Ryoo Seung-wan has 'no regrets' about 'Battleship Island'. The Korean Herald. Retrieved from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20170806000192
  35. Saikawa, Takashi. (2016). Returning to the international community: UNESCO and post-war Japan, 1945-1951. In Poul Duedahl (Ed.), A history of UNESCO: Global actions and impacts (pp. 116-130). Basingstoke, UK and New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  36. Smith, Laurajane. (2006). Uses of heritage. London and New York: Routledge.
  37. Stanislaus, Waren A. (2017). Japan house: Tokyo's new public diplomacy push. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/japan-house-tokyos-new-public-diplomacy-push/
  38. Suga, Yoshihide. (2015a, October 2). Press conference. Retrieved from http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/tyoukanpress/201510/2_p.html
  39. Suga, Yoshihide. (2015b, October 13). Press conference. Retrieved from http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/tyoukanpress/201510/13_p.html
  40. Suga, Yoshihide. (2017, April 28). Press conference. Retrieved from http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/tyoukanpress/201704/28_a.html
  41. Takahashi, Shiro. (2015). Daigyakusatsu toroku. Seiron, 12, 118-123.
  42. UNESCO. (2002). General guidelines to safeguard documentary heritage: A revised edition 2002. CII-95/WS-1rev. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001256/125637e.pdf
  43. UNESCO. (2014). Nomination form, International Memory of the World Register, Documents of Nanjing Massacre. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/mow/nomination_forms/china_nanjing_en.pdf
  44. UNESCO. (2015a). Sites of Japan's Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1484
  45. UNESCO. (2015b). World Heritage: 39th World Heritage Committee 2015-07-05 15:00-18:50. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1971&v=Mnp-FyTHr-s
  46. UNESCO. (2017). Executive board, 201 EX/5 Part I (H). Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ExtractPDF.pl?catno=247706&lang=e&from=141&to=149&display=2&ts=1499006266
  47. Winter, Tim. (2014a). Beyond Eurocentrism? Heritage conservation and the politics of difference. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 20(2), 123-137. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2012.736403
  48. Winter, Tim. (2014b). Heritage conservation futures in an age of shifting global power. Journal of Social Archaeology, 14(3), 319-339. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469605314532749
  49. Winter, Tim. (2016). One belt, one road, one heritage: Cultural diplomacy and the Silk Road. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2016/03/one-belt-one-road-one-heritage-cultural-diplomacy-and-the-silk-road/
  50. World Heritage Council of the Sites of Japan's Meiji Industrial Revolution. (2015). History of world heritage nomination. Retrieved from www.japansmeijiindustrialrevolution.com/en/history/
  51. Xinhua Net. (2015, October 10). China headlines: UNESCO listing of Nanjing Massacre shows global consensus. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-10/10/c_134699822.htm
  52. Yamaguchi, Tomomi, Motokazu Nogawa, Tessa-Morris Suzuki, and Emi Koyama. (2016). Umi wo wataru "ianfu" mondai. Tokyo: Iwanami.
  53. Yanagisawa, Isao. (2015). Meiji Nihon no sangyo kakumei isan. Tokyo: Wani books.
  54. Yonhap News. (2017a, July 31). "The Battleship Island" shown to UNESCO officials, diplomats in Paris. Retrieved from http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/news/2017/07/31/0200000000AEN20170731005900315.html
  55. Yonhap News. (2017b, August 4). Civic group to erect statue to commemorate victims of forced labor. Retrieved from http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/national/2017/08/04/0301000000AEN20170804010000315.html
  56. Zhang, Weihong. (2010). China's cultural future: From soft power to comprehensive national power. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 16(4), 383-402. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630903134300
  57. Zhao, Kejin. (2016). China's rise and its discursive power strategy. Chinese Political Science Review (online).
  58. Lee, Sook Jong. (2016). South Korea aiming to be an innovative middle power. In Sook Jong Lee (Eds.), Transforming global governance with middle power diplomacy: South Korea's role in the 21st century (pp. 1-13). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : JSPS