Performance-based earthquake engineering in a lower-seismicity region: South Korea

  • Lee, Han-Seon (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University) ;
  • Jeong, Ki-Hyun (School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University)
  • Received : 2017.12.20
  • Accepted : 2018.03.22
  • Published : 2018.07.25


Over the last three decades, Performance-based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) has been mainly developed for high seismicity regions. Although information is abundant for PBEE throughout the world, the application of PBEE to lower-seismicity regions, such as those where the magnitude of the maximum considered earthquake (MCE) is less than 6.5, is not always straightforward because some portions of PBEE may not be appropriate for such regions due to geological differences between high- and low-seismicity regions. This paper presents a brief review of state-of-art PBEE methodologies and introduces the seismic hazard of lower-seismicity regions, including those of the Korean Peninsula, with their unique characteristics. With this seismic hazard, representative low-rise RC MRF structures and high-rise RC wall residential structures are evaluated using PBEE. Also, the range of the forces and deformations of the representative building structures under the design earthquake (DE) and the MCE of South Korea are presented. These reviews are used to propose some ideas to improve the practice of state-of-art PBEE in lower-seismicity regions.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korea, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korea, Korea University


  1. ACI Committee 318 (2005), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318-05), American Concrete Institute, Detroit.
  2. AIK (2000), AIK 2000, Architectural Institute of Korea (AIK), Seoul, Korea. (in Korean)
  3. AIK (2005), Korean Building Code, KBC 2005, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)
  4. AIK (2009), Korean Building Code, KBC 2009, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)
  5. AIK (2016), Korean Building Code, KBC 2016, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)
  6. ASCE (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, Virginia, US.
  7. ASCE (2013), Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings, ASCE 41-13, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, Virginia, US.
  8. ATC (1996a), Improved Seismic Design Criteria for California Bridges: Provisional Recommendations: ATC-32, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC.
  9. ATC (1996b), Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Concrete Buildings, ATC-40, Applied Technology Council (ATC), Redwood City, CA.
  10. Atkinson, G.M. (2004), "An overview of developments in seismic hazard analysis", Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 5001.
  11. Bakun, W.H. and Hopper, M.G. (2004), "Magnitudes and locations of the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquakes", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 94(1), 64-75.
  12. Boore, D.M. and Atkinson, G.M. (2008), "Ground-motion prediction equations for the average horizontal component of PGA, PGV, and 5%-Damped PSA at spectral periods between 0.01 s and 10.0 s", Earthq. Spectra. 24(1), 99-138.
  13. Boore, D.M., Campbell, K.W. and Atkinson, G.M. (2010), "Determination of stress parameters for eight well-recorded earthquakes in eastern North America", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 100(4), 1632-1645.
  14. Chapman, M.C., Beale, J.N., Hardy, A.C. and Wu, Q. (2016), "Modern seismicity and the fault responsible for the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 106(2), 364-372
  15. Chung, K.R., Chung, H.J., Kang, M.S., Kim, S.H. and Park, K.M. (2013), "Eliminating special seismic boundary of special shear wall system using NLTHA", Korea Concrete Institute Conference, 2013 Fall, Sokcho, Korea. (in Korean)
  16. Cornell, C.A. (1968), "Engineering seismic risk analysis", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 58(5), 1583-1606.
  17. Cornell, C.A., Jalayer, F., Hamburger, R.O. and Foutch, D.A (2002), "Probabilistic basis for 2000 sac federal emergency management agency steel moment frame guidelines", J. Sttruct. Eng., 128(4), 526-533.
  18. Fardis, M.N. (2014), Comments on the Seismic Design Provisions of the Korean Building Code 2009. (Opinion Paper)
  19. FEMA (1996), NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA 273 Commentary, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington DC.
  20. FEMA (2000a), Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment-frame Buildings, Report No. FEMA-350, Washington, DC.
  21. FEMA (2000b), Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, Report No. FEMA-356, Washington, DC.
  22. FEMA (2012), Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings, Report FEMA P-58, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, U.S.A.
  23. Frankel, A. (1995), "Mapping seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States", Seismol. Res. Lett., 66(4), 8-21.
  24. Gunay, S. and Mosalam, K.M. (2013), "PEER performance-based earthquake engineering methodology, revisited", J. Earthq. Eng., 17(6), 829-858.
  25. Hong, T.K., Lee, J.H., Kim, W.H., Hahm, I.K., Woo, N.C. and Park, S.J. (2017), "The 12 September 2016 ML 5.8 midcrustal earthquake in the Korean Peninsula and its seismic implications", Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(7), 3131-3138.
  26. Houng, S.E. and Hong, T.K. (2013), "Probabilistic analysis of the Korean historical earthquake records", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 103(5), 2782-2796.
  27. Hwang, K.R. and Lee, H.S. (2015), "Seismic performance of a 10-story RC box-type wall building structure", Earthq. Struct., 9(6), 1193-1219.
  28. ICC (2000), International Building Code, IBC 2000, International Code Council, Country Club Hills, IL.
  29. ICC (2006), International Building Code, IBC 2006, International Code Council, Country Club Hills, IL.
  30. Jeong, K.H. and Lee, H.S. (2018), "Ground-motion prediction equation for South Korea based on recent earthquake records", Earthq. Struct., 15(1), 29-44.
  31. Ji, J., Elnashai, A.S. and Kuchma, D.A. (2009), "Seismic fragility relationships of reinforced concrete high-rise buildings", Struct. Des. Tall Spec. Build., 18(3), 259-277.
  32. Johnston, A.C. (1996), "Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions-III. New Madrid 1811-1812, Charleston 1886 and Lisbon 1755", Geophys. J. Int., 126(2), 314-344.
  33. Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), (in Korean)
  34. Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), (in Korean)
  35. Kramer, S.L. (1996), Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, New York.
  36. Krawinkler, H. and Miranda, E. (2004), Performance-based Earthquake Engineering, Chapter 9 of Earthquake Engineering: from Engineering Seismology to Performancebased Engineering, Eds. Bozorgnia and V.V. Bertero, CRC Pres.
  37. Lam, N., Tsang, H., Lumantarna, E. and Wilson, J. (2016), "Minimum loading requirements for areas of low seismicity", Earthq. Struct., 11(4) 539-561.
  38. LATBSDC (2017), An Alternative Procedure for Seismic Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings Located in the Los Angeles Region, Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structureal Design Council, A consensus Consensus Document, June.
  39. Lee, C.H. (2017), "Earthquake engineering analysis of ground accelerations measured in the 912 Gyeong-ju earthquake", J. Koran Soc. Civil Eng., 65(4), 8-13. (in Korean)
  40. Lee, H.S. and Woo, S.W. (2002a), "Seismic performance of a 3-story RC frame in a low-seismicity region", Eng. Struct., 24(6), 719-734.
  41. Lee, H.S. and Woo, S.W. (2002b), "Effect of masonry infills on seismic performance of a 3-storey R/C frame with non-seismic detailing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 31(2), 353-378.
  42. Lee, H.S., Hwang, K.R. and Kim, Y.H. (2015), "Seismic performance of a 1: 15-scale 25-story RC flat-plate core-wall building model", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 44(6), 929-953.
  43. Lee, H.S., Hwang, S.J., Lee, K.B., Kang, C.B., Lee, S.H. and Oh, S.H. (2012), "Earthquake simulation tests on a 1: 5 scale 10-story RC residential building model", The 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (15WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal.
  44. McGuire, R. (1976), "Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and design earthquakes: closing the loop", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 85(5), 1275-1284.
  45. Moehle, J. and Deierlein, G.G. (2004), "A framework methodology for performance-based earthquake engineering", The 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 679, August, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
  46. NEMA (2012), Active Fault Map and Seismic Hazard Map, National Emergency Management Agency, Report No. NEMANH-2009-24. (in Korean)
  47. Nordenson, G.J. and Bell, G.R. (2000), "Seismic design requirements for regions of moderate seismicity", Earthq. Spectra, 16(1), 205-225.
  48. Nuttli, O.W., Bollinger, G.A. and Herrmann, R.B. (1986), "The 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake; a 1986 perspective, US Geological Survey circular 985, USGS, Denver.
  49. Ohmynews (in Korean)
  50. Porter, K.A. (2003), "An overview of PEER's performance-based earthquake engineering methodology", Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering.
  51. Scholz, C.H. (2002), The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, Cambridge University Press.
  52. SEAOC (1995), Vision 2000, Performance Based Seismic Engineering of Buildings, Vols. I and II: Conceptual Framework, Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC), Sacramento, CA.
  53. SEAONC (2007), Requirements and Guidelines for the Seismic Design and Review of New Tall Buildings Using Non-Prescriptive Seismic Design Procedures, AB-083: Guidelines for the Structural Review of New Tall Buildings, Structural Engineering Association of Northern California.
  54. Tall Buildings Initiative. TBI (2010), Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design of Tall Buildings, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.
  55. USGS (in Korean)
  56. Willford, M., Whittaker, A. and Klemencic, R. (2008), Recommendations for the Seismic Design of High-rise Buildings.
  57. Yonhapnews (in Korean)
  58. YTN (in Korean)